Chapter XVII

THE BEING FINISHED speaking, and fixed his looks upon me in the expectation of a reply. But I was bewildered, perplexed, and unable to arrange my ideas sufficiently to understand the full extent of his proposition. He continued—“You must create a female for me, with whom I can live in the interchange of those sympathies necessary for my being. This you alone can do; and I demand it of you as a right which you must not refuse to concede.”

The latter part of his tale had kindled anew in me the anger that had died away while he narrated his peaceful life among the cottagers, and as he said this, I could no longer suppress the rage that burned within me.

“I do refuse it,” I replied; “and no torture shall ever extort a consent from me. You may render me the most miserable of men, but you shall never make me base in my own eyes. Shall I create another like yourself, whose joint wickedness might desolate the world! Begone! I have answered you; you may torture me, but I will never consent.”

“You are in the wrong,” replied the fiend; “and, instead of threatening, I am content to reason with you. I am malicious because I am miserable. Am I not shunned and hated by all mankind? You, my creator, would tear me to pieces, and triumph; remember that, and tell me why I should pity man more than he pities me? You would not call it murder if you could precipitate me into one of those ice-rifts, and destroy my frame, the work of your own hands. Shall I respect man when he contemns me? Let him live with me in the interchange of kindness; and instead of injury, I would bestow every benefit upon him with tears of gratitude at his acceptance. But that cannot be; the human senses are insurmountable barriers to our union. Yet mine shall not be the submission of abject slavery. I will revenge my injuries: if I cannot inspire love, I will cause fear; and chiefly towards you my arch-enemy, because my creator, do I swear inextinguishable hatred. Have a care: I will work at your destruction, nor finish until I desolate your heart, so that you shall curse the hour of your birth.”

A fiendish rage animated him as he said this; his face was wrinkled into contortions too horrible for human eyes to behold; but presently he calmed himself and proceeded—

“I intended to reason. This passion is detrimental to me; for you do not reflect that you are the cause of its excess. If any being felt emotions of benevolence towards me, I should return them an hundred and an hundred fold; for that one creature's sake, I would make peace with the whole kind! But I now indulge in dreams of bliss that cannot be realised. What I ask of you is reasonable and moderate; I demand a creature of another sex, but as hideous as myself; the gratification is small, but it is all that I can receive, and it shall content me. It is true we shall be monsters, cut off from all the world; but on that account we shall be more attached to one another. Our lives will not be happy, but they will be harmless, and free from the misery I now feel. Oh! my creator, make me happy; let me feel gratitude towards you for one benefit! Let me see that I excite the sympathy of some existing thing; do not deny me my request!”

I was moved. I shuddered when I thought of the possible consequences of my consent; but I felt that there was some justice in his argument. His tale, and the feelings he now expressed, proved him to be a creature of fine sensations; and did I not as his maker owe him all the portion of happiness that it was in my power to bestow? He saw my change of feeling and continued—

“If you consent, neither you nor any other human being shall ever see us again: I will go to the vast wilds of South America. My food is not that of man; I do not destroy the lamb and the kid to glut my appetite; acorns and berries afford me sufficient nourishment. My companion will be of the same nature as myself, and will be content with the same fare. We shall make our bed of dried leaves; the sun will shine on us as on man, and will ripen our food. The picture I present to you is peaceful and human, and you must feel that you could deny it only in the wantonness of power and cruelty. Pitiless as you have been towards me, I now see compassion in your eyes; let me seize the favourable moment, and persuade you to promise what I so ardently desire.”

“You propose,” replied I, “to fly from the habitations of man, to dwell in those wilds where the beasts of the field will be your only companions. How can you, who long for the love and sympathy of man, persevere in this exile? You will return, and again seek their kindness, and you will meet with their detestation; your evil passions will be renewed, and you will then have a companion to aid you in the task of destruction. This may not be: cease to argue the point, for I cannot consent.”

“How inconstant are your feelings! but a moment ago you were moved by my representations, and why do you again harden yourself to my complaints? I swear to you, by the earth which I inhabit, and by you that made me, that, with the companion you bestow, I will quit the neighbourhood of man, and dwell as it may chance in the most savage of places. My evil passions will have fled, for I shall meet with sympathy! my life will flow quietly away, and, in my dying moments, I shall not curse my maker.”

His words had a strange effect upon me. I compassionated, him and sometimes felt a wish to console him; but when I looked upon him, when I saw the filthy mass that moved and talked, my heart sickened, and my feelings were altered to those of horror and hatred. I tried to stifle these sensations; I thought that, as I could not sympathise with him, I had no right to withhold from him the small portion of happiness which was yet in my power to bestow.

“You swear,” I said, “to be harmless; but have you not already shown a degree of malice that should reasonably make me distrust you? May not even this be a feint that will increase your triumph by affording a wider scope for your revenge?”

“How is this? I must not be trifled with: and I demand an answer. If I have no ties and no affections, hatred and vice must be my portion; the love of another will destroy the cause of my crimes, and I shall become a thing of whose existence every one will be ignorant. My vices are the children of a forced solitude that I abhor; and my virtues will necessarily arise when I live in communion with an equal. I shall feel the affections of a sensitive being, and become linked to the chain of existence and events, from which I am now excluded.”

I paused some time to reflect on all he had related, and the various arguments which he had employed. I thought of the promise of virtues which he had displayed on the opening of his existence, and the subsequent blight of all kindly feeling by the loathing and scorn which his protectors had manifested towards him. His power and threats were not omitted in my calculations: a creature who could exist in the ice-caves of the glaciers, and hide himself from pursuit among the ridges of inaccessible precipices, was a being possessing faculties it would be vain to cope with. After a long pause of reflection, I concluded that the justice due both to him and my fellow-creatures demanded of me that I should comply with his request. Turning to him, therefore, I said—

“I consent to your demand, on your solemn oath to quit Europe for ever, and every other place in the neighbourhood of man, as soon as I shall deliver into your hands a female who will accompany you in your exile.”

“I swear,” he cried, “by the sun, and by the blue sky of Heaven, and by the fire of love that burns my heart, that if you grant my prayer, while they exist you shall never behold me again. Depart to your home, and commence your labours: I shall watch their progress with unutterable anxiety; and fear not but that when you are ready I shall appear.”

Saying this, he suddenly quitted me, fearful, perhaps, of any change in my sentiments. I saw him descend the mountain with greater speed than the flight of an eagle, and quickly lost among the undulations of the sea of ice.

His tale had occupied the whole day; and the sun was upon the verge of the horizon when he departed. I knew that I ought to hasten my descent towards the valley, as I should soon be encompassed in darkness; but my heart was heavy, and my steps slow. The labour of winding among the little paths of the mountains, and fixing my feet firmly as I advanced, perplexed me, occupied as I was by the emotions which the occurrences of the day had produced. Night was far advanced when I came to the half-way resting-place, and seated myself beside the fountain. The stars shone at intervals, as the clouds passed from over them; the dark pines rose before me, and every here and there a broken tree lay on the ground: it was a scene of wonderful solemnity, and stirred strange thoughts within me. I wept bitterly; and clasping my hands in agony, I exclaimed, “Oh! stars, and clouds, and winds, ye are all about to mock me: if ye really pity me, crush sensation and memory; let me become as nought; but if not, depart, depart, and leave me in darkness.”

These were wild and miserable thoughts; but I cannot describe to you how the eternal twinkling of the stars weighed upon me, and how I listened to every blast of wind as if it were a dull ugly siroc on its way to consume me.

Morning dawned before I arrived at the village of Chamounix; I took no rest, but returned immediately to Geneva. Even in my own heart I could give no expression to my sensations—they weighed on me with a mountain's weight, and their excess destroyed my agony beneath them. Thus I returned home, and entering the house, presented myself to the family. My haggard and wild appearance awoke intense alarm; but I answered no question, scarcely did I speak. I felt as if I were placed under a ban—as if I had no right to claim their sympathies— as if never more might I enjoy companionship with them. Yet even thus I loved them to adoration; and to save them, I resolved to dedicate myself to my most abhorred task. The prospect of such an occupation made every other circumstance of existence pass before me like a dream; and that thought only had to me the reality of life.


  1. Here, the creature finally proves himself to be Victor's intellectual equal.  Victor has agreed at this moment to make the creature a companion.

    — Noelle Thompson
  2. This chapter is a grand argument: a give and take between the creator and the created. Because both give and believe in solid and rational reasoning, the two (Victor and the creature) can be seen as equals at this point, and in fact, many scholars consider them to be so. (In fact, there are times within the text that readers may get confused as to exactly who is talking: Victor or the creature.) This eNotes educator finds it fascinating that the creature uses the word “mate” in regards to the companion it desires. A mate is most often associated with sexual interaction (and family interaction). Due to the observance of the De Lacey family, the creature would have been quite knowledgeable with the family interaction; however, the sexual interaction has probably been hidden from him. One must wonder why he grasped onto the one husband and wife (pending) relationship that the creature knew of: Felix and Safie. Why request a mate instead of a daughter? A friend (as Safie is to the father)? One can understand, however, why the creature didn’t request a father: Victor is the creature’s “father.” However, all relationships with this unnatural creature will be at their root unnatural. Therefore, the creature can be seen as equals with Victor in intellect and argument; however, the creature can never truly approach humanity. It is readers' speculation only in regards to whether the creature actually has a soul. Another interesting interpretation of this chapter involves the creature’s food. The creature claims to eat only acorns and berries: natural food. The creature uses this as an example how he is not like human. However, the first humans were always hunters and gathers. The creature seems to only see the “hunters” part of the equation. Humans “gather” as well, perhaps not acorns, but berries and other nuts. What is interesting from a Romantic perspective is that the unnatural creature eats the most natural of foods and yet considers carnivorous eating to be of humanity. To further the Romantic idea of the natural vs. the unnatural, one must realize that the creature almost becomes “supernatural” in his expectations of Victor’s progress on the mate. The creature first demands the work be done and then promises to "watch their progress with unutterable anxiety” and then show up when the work is “ready.” There is no indication on how the creature will accomplish this, except in the same fashion that he learned of the De Lacey cottagers. Finally, due to the natural vs. the unnatural, is the family’s reaction to Victor’s looks when he returns to make the creature’s mate. “My haggard and wild appearance awoke intense alarm; but I answered no question, scarcely did I speak.” Because of his unnatural doings while Victor was away, he has turned into the traditional “mad scientist” persona. Again, Romanticism finds its voice. Humans are renewed by the natural and aged by the unnatural.

    — Noelle Thompson
  3. With the creature having finished its tale, it sits waiting for a response from Victor. (Of course, the creature has just requested that Victor make it a mate.) At first, Victor refuses, but then hears the creature’s intelligent retort, one of the most pertinent lines being this: “I will revenge my injuries: if I cannot inspire love, I will cause fear.” The creature also promises that, if Victor agrees to making a companion, the creature and its mate will move far away, to a different continent, to South America. In this way, the creature promises that it will never be seen or heard from again. Victor and the creature have a graphic discussion back and forth one moment being on the side of anger and the next moment being on the side of compassion. After hearing the creature’s plans, Victor relents and agrees to make a female for the creature. Victor has his own demands: that the creature give his “solemn oath to quit Europe for ever.” The creature gives his oath to do so and then departs across the mountains of ice. Victor Frankenstein leaves immediately for Geneva to start on his new gruesome project. Now so very steeped in the unnatural, Victor looks as wild as his ideas prove to be. The family reacts accordingly: “My haggard and wild appearance awoke intense alarm; but I answered no question, scarcely did I speak.” Victor cannot be concerned with the family’s reaction. In fact, Victor feels banned from compassion because of his past actions; therefore, he gets right to work making a mate for the creature.

    — Noelle Thompson
  4. Note the family's reaction to Victor Frankenstein's appearance.  True to the characteristics of Romanticism, Victor has changed.  Earlier in his life when he was steeped in the "natural," Victor was simply obsessed with science.  Now, steeped in the "unnatural" Victor is "wild" and "haggard."  Victor is very much the exaggerated image of what our modern world calls the "mad scientist."

    — Noelle Thompson
  5. Note the very supernatural/unnatural quality of this statement.  A demand for Victor Frankenstein to leave for home in order to start his work.  This is followed by the promise of observation.  It should leave readers with an eerie feeling, knowing the creature is going to "watch their progress with unutterable anxiety."  Further, under this observation, somehow the creature will know when "you are ready."  This eNotes educator can't imagine the anxiety that Victor must feel being watched by a being not of this world in this particular manner.

    — Noelle Thompson
  6. Such an interesting dichotomy here, and an interesting Romantic idea.  The creature claims that its "food is not that of man," claiming that meat (in other words "the lamb and the kid") isn't its nourishment.  However, the creature's food is precisely "acorns and berries."  What strikes this eNotes educator is that the first humans were always considered hunters and gatherers.  They hunted game and they gathered nuts and berries.  Wouldn't all of these foods be "that of man"?  Further, aren't all these foods directly from nature?  It seems that nature sustains all:  quite a concept of Romantic literature.

    — Noelle Thompson
  7. Notice how similar Victor's wording is to the wording of the creature in regards to the De Lacey family.  Note the progression: anger to peace to rage.  (A "degree of intensity" difference even between the first and the last.)

    — Noelle Thompson
  8. It is interesting to note that the creature never mentions the biological differences between male and female.  It is possible that the creature doesn't know, doesn't understand, or isn't capable of sexual understanding (in regards to the differences between actual "mates").  Readers should suppose that the creature has observed the interactions between Felix and Safie, and has learned about suitable "mates" from them. 

    — Noelle Thompson