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Facts in Madame Bovary

Facts Examples in Madame Bovary:

Part I - Chapter One

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"St. Romain fair..."   (Part I - Chapter One)

The St. Romain fair, in honor of the patron saint of Rouen, France, is one of the biggest celebrations in Europe.

"cure..."   (Part I - Chapter One)

Le curé is the parish priest who also took on duties such as educating some of the parishioners under the notion that the Church is mater et magistra, or mother and teacher in one.

"Twelfth-night..."   (Part I - Chapter Two)

Twelfth Night is the eve of the Feast that in some branches of Christianity marks the beginning of the Epiphany. It also marks the twelfth day of Christmas.

"the beautiful Ferroniere..."   (Part I - Chapter Six)

Leonardo Da Vinci's painting La Belle Ferroniere, which means the beautiful daughter of an ironmonger, is also known in the English-speaking world as "The Portrait of the Unknown Woman" and has the same air of mystery as The Mona Lisa.

"Genie du Christianisme..."   (Part I - Chapter Six)

The "Genie du Christianisme" is a treatise in defense of Catholicism written by François-René Viscount (Vicomte) de Chateaubriand.

"little bamboo-house..."   (Part I - Chapter Six)

*Paul et Virginie *is set on the island of Mauritius, a French territory.

"Paul and Virginia..."   (Part I - Chapter Six)

This is a reference to the 1788 novel *Paul et Virginie *(1788) by Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint Pierre.

"dog-days..."   (Part I - Chapter Seven)

During the Summer period, particularly July 3 to August 11, the Sirius star sets and rises with the Sun much like the North star does during Winter months. Sirius was known as the "dog" star by the ancients because of the shape it forms when seen from below.

"greengages..."   (Part I - Chapter Seven)

Cultivated in France, the greengage is a variety of plum that is oval-shaped and green, sometimes yellow. They make great dessert fruits because of their powerfully sweet flavor.

"Hirondelle..."   (Part II - Chapter One)

The "Hirondelle" is a barge or city car that would make the rounds from mid point to end point several times per day. In the novel, the "Hirondelle" transports some characters from one city to another, symbolizing change and possibility.

"Beranger..."   (Part II - Chapter One)

Pierre-Jean de Beranger (1780-1857) was a poet, songwriter, satirist, and critic of the Napoleonic France era.

"Voltaire..."   (Part II - Chapter One)

Francois Marie Arouet (1964- 1778) was a philosopher, dramatist, and author of the Enlightenment period under the pen name Voltaire. He was a critic of the French government whose wits got him voted into the Academie Francaise.

"Franklin..."   (Part II - Chapter One)

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was an American inventor, ambassador, philosopher, political envoy, founding father of the United States of America, intellectual, community leader, and writer (among many other things).

"Socrates..."   (Part II - Chapter One)

Socrates (469–399 B.C.E.) was a Greek Philosopher, whose attitudes and ideas modeled the Western philosophical constructs by which everything, from our law system to our teaching system, operate.

"phlebotomy..."   (Part II - Chapter One)

The word "phlebotomy" refers to blood-letting, or bleeding someone with the intention of making them heal. As far back as the Middle Ages, it was understood that the human body was run by "humors" and that bleeding out excess blood would repair the body's natural balance of humors. Leeches were often used since they feed off impurities that naturally occur in the blood.

"tricolour..."   (Part II - Chapter One)

The tricolor design on the French flag denotes Republicanism, just like France became a Republic after disposing of the monarchy. The order is blue, white, and red. Americans adopted the same three colors.

"Arabian racahout..."   (Part II - Chapter One)

Racahout des Arabes Delangrenier was a well-known children's remedy to cure stomach aches and other problems.

"Walter Scott..."   (Part II - Chapter Two)

Sir Walter Scott (1771- 1832) was a novelist, historian, and considered the father of the historical novel.

"Reaumur..."   (Part II - Chapter Two)

René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur created a measurement scale which set the freezing and boiling temperatures to 0 and 80.

"19th Ventose, year xi., article I..."   (Part II - Chapter Three)

During the Ancien Régime, the medical profession was reformed by Fourcroy. The calendar was changed drastically in France and gave months, seasons, and years different names. As expected, it ended in disaster, which is why that calendar is not used today. 10 March 1803 would have been 19 Ventose (an=year) XI. The law remains though, that only medical doctors, trained physician's assistants, or nurses can practice medicine.

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