The Medea

The Scene represents the front of Medea's House in Corinth. A road to the right leads towards the royal castle, one on the left to the harbour. The Nurse is discovered alone.

NURSE.

Would God no Argo e'er had winged the seas
To Colchis through the blue Symplêgades:
No shaft of riven pine in Pêlion's glen
Shaped that first oar-blade in the hands of men
Valiant, who won, to save King Pelias' vow,
The fleece All-golden! Never then, I trow,
Mine own princess, her spirit wounded sore
With love of Jason, to the encastled shore
Had sailed of old Iôlcos: never wrought
The daughters of King Pelias, knowing not,
To spill their father's life: nor fled in fear,
Hunted for that fierce sin, to Corinth here
With Jason and her babes. This folk at need
Stood friend to her, and she in word and deed
Served alway Jason. Surely this doth bind,
Through all ill days, the hurts of humankind,
When man and woman in one music move.

But now, the world is angry, and true love
Sick as with poison. Jason doth forsake
My mistress and his own two sons, to make
His couch in a king's chamber. He must wed:
Wed with this Creon's child, who now is head
And chief of Corinth. Wherefore sore betrayed
Medea calleth up the oath they made,
They two, and wakes the claspèd hands again,
The troth surpassing speech, and cries amain
On God in heaven to mark the end, and how
Jason hath paid his debt.

All fasting now
And cold, her body yielded up to pain,
Her days a waste of weeping, she hath lain,
Since first she knew that he was false. Her eyes
Are lifted not; and all her visage lies
In the dust. If friends will speak, she hears no more
Than some dead rock or wave that beats the shore:
Only the white throat in a sudden shame
May writhe, and all alone she moans the name
Of father, and land, and home, forsook that day
For this man's sake, who casteth her away.
Not to be quite shut out from home . . . alas,
She knoweth now how rare a thing that was!
Methinks she hath a dread, not joy, to see
Her children near. 'Tis this that maketh me
Most tremble, lest she do I know not what.
Her heart is no light thing, and useth not
To brook much wrong. I know that woman, aye,
And dread her! Will she creep alone to die
Bleeding in that old room, where still is laid
Lord Jason's bed? She hath for that a blade
Made keen. Or slay the bridegroom and the king,
And win herself God knows what direr thing?
'Tis a fell spirit. Few, I ween, shall stir
Her hate unscathed, or lightly humble her.

Ha! 'Tis the children from their games again,
Rested and gay; and all their mother's pain
Forgotten! Young lives ever turn from gloom!

[The Children and their Attendant come in]

ATTENDANT.

Thou ancient treasure of my lady's room,
What mak'st thou here before the gates alone,
And alway turning on thy lips some moan
Of old mischances? Will our mistress be
Content, this long time to be left by thee?

NURSE.

Grey guard of Jason's children, a good thrall
Hath his own grief, if any hurt befall
His masters. Aye, it holds one's heart! . . .
Meseems
I have strayed out so deep in evil dreams,
I longed to rest me here alone, and cry
Medea's wrongs to this still Earth and Sky.

ATTENDANT.

How? Are the tears yet running in her eyes?

NURSE.

'Twere good to be like thee! . . . Her sorrow lies
Scarce wakened yet, not half its perils wrought.

ATTENDANT.

Mad spirit! . . . if a man may speak his thought
Of masters mad.—And nothing in her ears
Hath sounded yet of her last cause for tears!

[He moves towards the house, but the Nurse checks him]

NURSE.

What cause, old man? . . . Nay, grudge me not one word.

ATTENDANT.

'Tis nothing. Best forget what thou hast heard.

NURSE.

Nay, housemate, by thy beard! Hold it not hid
From me. . . . I will keep silence if thou bid.

ATTENDANT.

I heard an old man talking, where he sate
At draughts in the sun, beside the fountain gate,
And never thought of me, there standing still
Beside him. And he said, 'Twas Creon's will,
Being lord of all this land, that she be sent,
And with her her two sons, to banishment.
Maybe 'tis all false. For myself, I know
No further, and I would it were not so.

NURSE.

Jason will never bear it--his own sons
Banished,—however hot his anger runs
Against their mother!

ATTENDANT.

Old love burneth low
When new love wakes, men say. He is not now
Husband nor father here, nor any kin.

NURSE.

But this is ruin! New waves breaking in
To wreck us, ere we are righted from the old!

ATTENDANT.

Well, hold thy peace. Our mistress will be told
All in good time. Speak thou no word hereof.

NURSE.

My babes! What think ye of your father's love?
God curse him not, he is my master still:
But, oh, to them that loved him, 'tis an ill Friend. . . .

ATTENDANT.

And what man on earth is different? How?
Hast thou lived all these years, and learned but now
That every man more loveth his own head
Than other men's? He dreameth of the bed
Of this new bride, and thinks not of his sons.

NURSE.

Go: run into the house, my little ones:
All will end happily! . . . Keep them apart:
Let not their mother meet them while her heart
Is darkened. Yester night I saw a flame
Stand in her eye, as though she hated them,
And would I know not what. For sure her wrath
Will never turn nor slumber, till she hath . . .
Go: and if some must suffer, may it be
Not we who love her, but some enemy!

MEDEA. [Voice within]

Oh shame and pain: O woe is me!
Would I could die in my misery!

[The Children and the Attendant go in]

NURSE.

Ah, children, hark! She moves again
Her frozen heart, her sleeping wrath.
In, quick! And never cross her path,
Nor rouse that dark eye in its pain;

That fell sea-spirit, and the dire
Spring of a will untaught, unbowed.
Quick, now!—Methinks this weeping cloud
Hath in its heart some thunder-fire,

Slow gathering, that must flash ere long.
I know not how, for ill or well,
It turns, this uncontrollable
Tempestuous spirit, blind with wrong.

MEDEA. [Voice within]

Have I not suffered? Doth it call
No tears? . . . Ha, ye beside the wall
Unfathered children, God hate you
As I am hated, and him, too,
That gat you, and this house and all!

NURSE.

For pity! What have they to do,
Babes, with their father's sin? Why call
Thy curse on these? . . . Ah, children, all
These days my bosom bleeds for you.

Rude are the wills of princes: yea,
Prevailing alway, seldom crossed,
On fitful winds their moods are tossed:
'Tis best men tread the equal way.

Aye, not with glory but with peace
May the long summers find me crowned:
For gentleness—her very sound
Is magic, and her usages.

All wholesome: but the fiercely great
Hath little music on his road,
And falleth, when the hand of God
Shall move, most deep and desolate.

[During the last words the Leader of the Chorus has entered. Other women follow her]

LEADER.

I heard a voice and a moan,
A voice of the eastern seas:
Hath she found not yet her ease?
Speak, O agèd one.
For I stood afar at the gate,
And there came from within a cry,
And wailing desolate.
Ah, no more joy have I,
For the griefs this house doth see,
And the love it hath wrought in me.

NURSE.

There is no house! 'Tis gone. The lord
Seeketh a prouder bed: and she
Wastes in her chamber, not one word
Will hear of care or charity.

MEDEA. [Voice within]

O Zeus, O Earth, O Light,
Will the fire not stab my brain?
What profiteth living? Oh,
Shall I not lift the slow
Yoke, and let Life go,
As a beast out in the night,
To lie, and be rid of pain?

CHORUS.

Some Women

A.

"O Zeus, O Earth, O Light:"
The cry of a bride forlorn
Heard ye, and wailing born
Of lost delight?

B.

Why weariest thou this day,
Wild heart, for the bed abhorrèd,
The cold bed in the clay?
Death cometh though no man pray,
Ungarlanded, un-adorèd.
Call him not thou.

C.

If another's arms be now
Where thine have been,
On his head be the sin:
Rend not thy brow!

D.

All that thou sufferest,
God seeth: Oh, not so sore
Waste nor weep for the breast
That was thine of yore.

MEDEA. [Voice within]

Virgin of Righteousness,
Virgin of hallowed Troth,
Ye marked me when with an oath
I bound him; mark no less
That oath's end. Give me to see
Him and his bride, who sought
My grief when I wronged her not,
Broken in misery,
And all her house. . . . O God,
My mother's home, and the dim
Shore that I left for him,
And the voice of my brother's blood. . . .

NURSE.

Oh, wild words! Did ye hear her cry
To them that guard man's faith forsworn,
Themis and Zeus? . . . This wrath new-born
Shall make mad workings ere it die.

CHORUS.

Other Women.

A.

Would she but come to seek
Our faces, that love her well,
And take to her heart the spell
Of words that speak?

B.

Alas for the heavy hate
And anger that burneth ever!
Would it but now abate,
Ah God, I love her yet.
And surely my love's endeavour
Shall fail not here.

C.

Go: from that chamber drear
Forth to the day
Lead her, and say, Oh, say
That we love her dear.

D.

Go, lest her hand be hard
On the innocent: Ah, let be!
For her grief moves hitherward,
Like an angry sea.

NURSE.

That will I: though what words of mine
Or love shall move her? Let them lie
With the old lost labours! . . . Yet her eye—
Know ye the eyes of the wild kine,

The lion flash that guards their brood?
So looks she now if any thrall
Speak comfort, or draw near at all
My mistress in her evil mood.

[The Nurse goes into the house]

CHORUS.

A Woman.

Alas, the bold blithe bards of old
That all for joy their music made,
For feasts and dancing manifold,
That Life might listen and be glad.

But all the darkness and the wrong,
Quick deaths and dim heart-aching things,
Would no man ease them with a song
Or music of a thousand strings?

Then song had served us in our need.
What profit, o'er the banquet's swell
That lingering cry that none may heed?
The feast hath filled them: all is well!

Others.

I heard a song, but it comes no more.
Where the tears ran over:
A keen cry but tired, tired:
A woman's cry for her heart's desired,
For a traitor's kiss and a lost lover.
But a prayer, methinks, yet riseth sore
To God, to Faith, God's ancient daughter—
The Faith that over sundering seas
Drew her to Hellas, and the breeze
Of midnight shivered, and the door
Closed of the salt unsounded water.

[During the last words Medea has come out from the house]

MEDEA.

Women of Corinth, I am come to show
My face, lest ye despise me. For I know
Some heads stand high and fail not, even at night
Alone—far less like this, in all men's sight:
And we, who study not our wayfarings
But feel and cry—Oh we are drifting things,
And evil! For what truth is in men's eyes,
Which search no heart, but in a flash despise
A strange face, shuddering back from one that ne'er
Hath wronged them? . . . Sure, far-comers anywhere,
I know, must bow them and be gentle. Nay,
A Greek himself men praise not, who alway
Should seek his own will recking not. . . . But I—
This thing undreamed of, sudden from on high,
Hath sapped my soul: I dazzle where I stand,
The cup of all life shattered in my hand,
Longing to die—O friends! He, even he,
Whom to know well was all the world to me,
The man I loved, hath proved most evil.—Oh,
Of all things upon earth that bleed and grow,
A herb most bruised is woman. We must pay
Our store of gold, hoarded for that one day,
To buy us some man's love; and lo, they bring
A master of our flesh! There comes the sting
Of the whole shame. And then the jeopardy,
For good or ill, what shall that master be;
Reject she cannot: and if he but stays
His suit, 'tis shame on all that woman's days.
So thrown amid new laws, new places, why,
'Tis magic she must have, or prophecy—
Home never taught her that—how best to guide
Toward peace this thing that sleepeth at her side.
And she who, labouring long, shall find some way
Whereby her lord may bear with her, nor fray
His yoke too fiercely, blessed is the breath
That woman draws! Else, let her pray for death.
Her lord, if he be wearied of the face
Withindoors, gets him forth; some merrier place
Will ease his heart: but she waits on, her whole
Vision enchainèd on a single soul.
And then, forsooth, 'tis they that face the call
Of war, while we sit sheltered, hid from all
Peril!—False mocking! Sooner would I stand
Three times to face their battles, shield in hand,
Than bear one child.

But peace! There cannot be
Ever the same tale told of thee and me.
Thou hast this city, and thy father's home,
And joy of friends, and hope in days to come:
But I, being citiless, am cast aside
By him that wedded me, a savage bride
Won in far seas and left—no mother near,
No brother, not one kinsman anywhere
For harbour in this storm. Therefore of thee
I ask one thing. If chance yet ope to me
Some path, if even now my hand can win
Strength to requite this Jason for his sin,
Betray me not! Oh, in all things but this,
I know how full of fears a woman is,
And faint at need, and shrinking from the light
Of battle: but once spoil her of her right
In man's love, and there moves, I warn thee well,
No bloodier spirit between heaven and hell.

LEADER.

I will betray thee not. It is but just,
Thou smite him.—And that weeping in the dust
And stormy tears, how should I blame them? . . .
Stay:
'Tis Creon, lord of Corinth, makes his way
Hither, and bears, methinks, some word of weight.

[Enter from the right Creon, the King, with armed Attendants]

CREON.

Thou woman sullen-eyed and hot with hate
Against thy lord, Medea, I here command
That thou and thy two children from this land
Go forth to banishment. Make no delay:
Seeing ourselves, the King, are come this day
To see our charge fulfilled; nor shall again
Look homeward ere we have led thy children twain
And thee beyond our realm's last boundary.

MEDEA.

Lost! Lost!
Mine haters at the helm with sail flung free
Pursuing; and for us no beach nor shore
In the endless waters! . . . Yet, though stricken sore,
I still will ask thee, for what crime, what thing
Unlawful, wilt thou cast me out, O King?

CREON.

What crime? I fear thee, woman—little need
To cloak my reasons—lest thou work some deed
Of darkness on my child. And in that fear
Reasons enough have part. Thou comest here
A wise-woman confessed, and full of lore
In unknown ways of evil. Thou art sore
In heart, being parted from thy lover's arms.
And more, thou hast made menace . . . so the alarms
But now have reached mine ear . . . on bride and groom,
And him who gave the bride, to work thy doom
Of vengeance. Which, ere yet it be too late,
I sweep aside. I choose to earn thine hate
Of set will now, not palter with the mood
Of mercy, and hereafter weep in blood.

MEDEA.

'Tis not the first nor second time, O King,
That fame hath hurt me, and come nigh to bring
My ruin. . . . How can any man, whose eyes
Are wholesome, seek to rear his children wise
Beyond men's wont? Much helplessness in arts
Of common life, and in their townsmen's hearts
Envy deep-set . . . so much their learning brings!
Come unto fools with knowledge of new things,
They deem it vanity, not knowledge. Aye,
And men that erst for wisdom were held high,
Feel thee a thorn to fret them, privily
Held higher than they. So hath it been with me.
A wise-woman I am; and for that sin
To divers ill names men would pen me in;
A seed of strife; an eastern dreamer; one
Of brand not theirs; one hard to play upon . . .
Ah, I am not so wondrous wise!—And now,
To thee, I am terrible! What fearest thou?
What dire deed? Do I tread so proud a path—
Fear me not thou!—that I should brave the wrath
Of princes? Thou: what has thou ever done
To wrong me? Granted thine own child to one
Whom thy soul chose.—Ah, him out of my heart
I hate; but thou, meseems, hast done thy part
Not ill. And for thine houses' happiness
I hold no grudge. Go: marry, and God bless
Your issues. Only suffer me to rest
Somewhere within this land. Though sore oppressed,
I will be still, knowing mine own defeat.

CREON.

Thy words be gentle: but I fear me yet
Lest even now there creep some wickedness
Deep hid within thee. And for that the less
I trust thee now than ere these words began.
A woman quick of wrath, aye, or a man,
Is easier watching than the cold and still.
Up, straight, and find thy road! Mock not my will
With words. This doom is passed beyond recall;
Nor all thy crafts shall help thee, being withal
My manifest foe, to linger at my side.

[Medea suddenly throwing herself down and clinging to Creon]

MEDEA.

Oh, by thy knees! By that new-wedded bride . . .

CREON.

'Tis waste of words. Thou shalt not weaken me.

MEDEA.

Wilt hunt me? Spurn me when I kneel to thee?

CREON.

'Tis mine own house that kneels to me, not thou.

MEDEA.

Home, my lost home, how I desire thee now!

CREON.

And I mine, and my child, beyond all things.

MEDEA.

O Loves of man, what curse is on your wings!

CREON.

Blessing or curse, 'tis as their chances flow.

MEDEA.

Remember, Zeus, the cause of all this woe!

CREON.

Oh, rid me of my pains! Up, get thee gone!

MEDEA.

What would I with thy pains? I have mine own.

CREON.

Up: or, 'fore God, my soldiers here shall fling . . .

MEDEA.

Not that! Not that! . . . I do but pray, O King . . .

CREON.

Thou wilt not? I must face the harsher task?

MEDEA.

I accept mine exile. 'Tis not that I ask.

CREON.

Why then so wild? Why clinging to mine hand?

MEDEA. [rising]

For one day only leave me in thy land
At peace, to find some counsel, ere the strain
Of exile fall, some comfort for these twain,
Mine innocents; since others take no thought,
It seems, to save the babes that they begot.
Ah! Thou wilt pity them! Thou also art
A father: thou hast somewhere still a heart
That feels. . . . I reck not of myself: 'tis they
That break me, fallen upon so dire a day.

CREON.

Mine is no tyrant's mood. Aye, many a time
Ere this my tenderness hath marred the chime
Of wisest counsels. And I know that now
I do mere folly. But so be it! Thou
Shalt have this grace . . . But this I warn thee clear,
If once the morrow's sunlight find thee here
Within my borders, thee or child of thine,
Thou diest! . . . Of this judgment not a line
Shall waver nor abate. So linger on,
If thou needs must, till the next risen sun;
No further. . . . In one day there scarce can be
Those perils wrought whose dread yet haunteth me.

[Exit Creon with his suite]

CHORUS.

O woman, woman of sorrow,
Where wilt thou turn and flee?
What town shall be thine to-morrow,
What land of all lands that be,
What door of a strange man's home?
Yea, God hath hunted thee,
Medea, forth to the foam
Of a trackless sea.

MEDEA.

Defeat on every side; what else?—But Oh,
Not here the end is: think it not! I know
For bride and groom one battle yet untried,
And goodly pains for him that gave the bride.

Dost dream I would have grovelled to this man,
Save that I won mine end, and shaped my plan
For merry deeds? My lips had never deigned
Speak word with him: my flesh been never stained
With touching. . . . Fool, Oh, triple fool! It lay
So plain for him to kill my whole essay
By exile swift: and, lo, he sets me free
This one long day: wherein mine haters three
Shall lie here dead, the father and the bride
And husband—mine, not hers! Oh, I have tried
So many thoughts of murder to my turn,
I know not which best likes me. Shall I burn
Their house with fire? Or stealing past unseen
To Jason's bed—I have a blade made keen
For that—stab, breast to breast, that wedded pair?
Good, but for one thing. When I am taken there,
And killed, they will laugh loud who hate me. . . .

Nay,
I love the old way best, the simple way
Of poison, where we too are strong as men.
Ah me!
And they being dead—what place shall hold me then?
What friend shall rise, with land inviolate
And trusty doors, to shelter from their hate
This flesh? . . . None anywhere! . . . A little more
I needs must wait: and, if there ope some door
Of refuge, some strong tower to shield me, good:
In craft and darkness I will hunt this blood.
Else, if mine hour be come and no hope nigh,
Then sword in hand, full-willed and sure to die,
I yet will live to slay them. I will wend
Man-like, their road of daring to the end.

So help me She who of all Gods hath been
The best to me, of all my chosen queen
And helpmate, Hecatê, who dwells apart,
The flame of flame, in my fire's inmost heart:
For all their strength, they shall not stab my soul
And laugh thereafter! Dark and full of dole
Their bridal feast shall be, most dark the day
They joined their hands, and hunted me away.

Awake thee now, Medea! Whatso plot
Thou hast, or cunning, strive and falter not.
On to the peril-point! Now comes the strain
Of daring. Shall they trample thee again?
How? And with Hellas laughing o'er thy fall
While this thief's daughter weds, and weds withal
Jason? . . . A true king was thy father, yea,
And born of the ancient Sun! . . . Thou know'st the way;
And God hath made thee woman, things most vain
For help, but wondrous in the paths of pain.

[Medea goes into the House]

CHORUS.

Back streams the wave on the ever running river:
Life, life is changed and the laws of it o'ertrod.
Man shall be the slave, the affrighted, the low-liver!

Man hath forgotten God.
And woman, yea, woman, shall be terrible in story:
The tales too, meseemeth, shall be other than of yore.
For a fear there is that cometh out of Woman and a glory,
And the hard hating voices shall encompass her no more!

The old bards shall cease, and their memory that lingers
Of frail brides and faithless, shall be shrivelled as with fire.
For they loved us not, nor knew us: and our lips were dumb, our fingers
Could wake not the secret of the lyre.
Else, else, O God the Singer, I had sung amid their rages
A long tale of Man and his deeds for good and ill.
But the old World knoweth—'tis the speech of all his ages—
Man's wrong and ours: he knoweth and is still.

Some Women.

Forth from thy father's home
Thou camest, O heart of fire,
To the Dark Blue Rocks, to the clashing foam,
To the seas of thy desire:


Till the Dark Blue Bar was crossed;
And, lo, by an alien river
Standing, thy lover lost,
Void-armed for ever,


Forth yet again, O lowest
Of landless women, a ranger
Of desolate ways, thou goest,
From the walls of the stranger.


Others.

And the great Oath waxeth weak;
And Ruth, as a thing outstriven,
Is fled, fled, from the shores of the Greek,
Away on the winds of heaven.

Dark is the house afar,
Where an old king called thee daughter;
All that was once thy star
In stormy water,

Dark: and, lo, in the nearer
House that was sworn to love thee,
Another, queenlier, dearer,
Is thronèd above thee.

[Enter from the right Jason]

JASON.

Oft have I seen, in other days than these,
How a dark temper maketh maladies
No friend can heal. 'Twas easy to have kept
Both land and home. It needed but to accept
Unstrivingly the pleasure of our lords.
But thou, for mere delight in stormy words,
Wilt lose all! . . . Now thy speech provokes not me.
Rail on. Of all mankind let Jason be
Most evil; none shall check thee. But for these
Dark threats cast out against the majesties
Of Corinth, count as veriest gain thy path
Of exile. I myself, when princely wrath
Was hot against thee, strove with all good will
To appease the wrath, and wished to keep thee still
Beside me. But thy mouth would never stay
From vanity, blaspheming night and day
Our masters. Therefore thou shalt fly the land.

Yet, even so, I will not hold my hand
From succouring mine own people. Here am I
To help thee, woman, pondering heedfully
Thy new state. For I would not have thee flung
Provisionless away—aye, and the young
Children as well; nor lacking aught that will
Of mine can bring thee. Many a lesser ill
Hangs on the heels of exile. . . . Aye, and though
Thou hate me, dream not that my heart can know
Or fashion aught of angry will to thee.

MEDEA.

Evil, most evil! . . . since thou grantest me
That comfort, the worst weapon left me now
To smite a coward. . . . Thou comest to me, thou,
Mine enemy! (Turning to the Chorus.) Oh, say, how call ye this,
To face, and smile, the comrade whom his kiss
Betrayed? Scorn? Insult? Courage? None of these:
'Tis but of all man's inward sicknesses
The vilest, that he knoweth not of shame
Nor pity! Yet I praise him that he came . . .
To me it shall bring comfort, once to clear
My heart on thee, and thou shalt wince to hear.

I will begin with that, 'twixt me and thee,
That first befell. I saved thee. I saved thee—
Let thine own Greeks be witness, every one
That sailed on Argo—saved thee, sent alone
To yoke with yokes the bulls of fiery breath,
And sow that Acre of the Lords of Death;
And mine own ancient Serpent, who did keep
The Golden Fleece, the eyes that knew not sleep,
And shining coils, him also did I smite
Dead for thy sake, and lifted up the light
That bade thee live. Myself, uncounsellèd,
Stole forth from father and from home, and fled
Where dark Iôlcos under Pelion lies,
With thee—Oh, single-hearted more than wise!
I murdered Pelias, yea, in agony,
By his own daughters' hands, for sake of thee;
I swept their house like War.—And hast thou then
Accepted all—O evil yet again!—
And cast me off and taken thee for bride
Another? And with children at thy side!
One could forgive a childless man. But no:
I have borne thee children . . .

Is sworn faith so low
And weak a thing? I understand it not.
Are the old gods dead? Are the old laws forgot,
And new laws made? Since not my passioning,
But thine own heart, doth cry thee for a thing
Forsworn.

[She catches sight of her own hand which she has thrown out to denounce him]

Poor, poor right hand of mine, whom he
Did cling to, and these knees, so cravingly,
We are unclean, thou and I; we have caught the stain
Of bad men's flesh . . . and dreamed our dreams in vain.

Thou comest to befriend me? Give me, then,
Thy counsel. 'Tis not that I dream again
For good from thee: but, questioned, thou wilt show
The viler. Say: now whither shall I go?
Back to my father? Him I did betray,
And all his land, when we two fled away.
To those poor Peliad maids? For them 'twere good
To take me in, who spilled their father's blood. . . .
Aye, so my whole life stands! There were at home
Who loved me well: to them I am become
A curse. And the first friends who sheltered me,
Whom most I should have spared, to pleasure thee
I have turned to foes. Oh, therefore hast thou laid
My crown upon me, blest of many a maid
In Hellas, now I have won what all did crave,
Thee, the world-wondered lover and the brave;
Who this day looks and sees me banished, thrown
Away with these two babes, all, all, alone . . .
Oh, merry mocking when the lamps are red:
"Where go the bridegroom's babes to beg their bread
In exile, and the woman who gave all
To save him?"

O great God, shall gold withal
Bear thy clear mark, to sift the base and fine,
And o'er man's living visage runs no sign
To show the lie within, ere all too late?

LEADER.

Dire and beyond all healing is the hate
When hearts that loved are turned to enmity.

JASON.

In speech at least, meseemeth, I must be
Not evil; but, as some old pilot goes
Furled to his sail's last edge, when danger blows
Too fiery, run before the wind and swell,
Woman, of thy loud storms.—And thus I tell
My tale. Since thou wilt build so wondrous high
Thy deeds of service in my jeopardy,
To all my crew and quest I know but one
Saviour, of Gods or mortals one alone,
The Cyprian. Oh, thou hast both brain and wit,
Yet underneath . . . nay, all the tale of it
Were graceless telling; how sheer love, a fire
Of poison-shafts, compelled thee with desire
To save me. But enough. I will not score
That count too close. 'Twas good help: and therefor
I give thee thanks, howe'er the help was wrought.
Howbeit, in my deliverance, thou hast got
Far more than given. A good Greek land hath been
Thy lasting home, not barbary. Thou hast seen
Our ordered life, and justice, and the long
Still grasp of law not changing with the strong
Man's pleasure. Then, all Hellas far and near
Hath learned thy wisdom, and in every ear
Thy fame is. Had thy days run by unseen
On that last edge of the world, where then had been
The story of great Medea? Thou and I . . .
What worth to us were treasures heapèd high
In rich kings' rooms; what worth a voice of gold
More sweet than ever rang from Orpheus old,
Unless our deeds have glory?

Speak I so,
Touching the Quest I wrought, thyself did throw
The challenge down. Next for thy cavilling
Of wrath at mine alliance with a king,
Here thou shalt see I both was wise, and free
From touch of passion, and a friend to thee
Most potent, and my children . . . Nay, be still!
When first I stood in Corinth, clogged with ill
From many a desperate mischance, what bliss
Could I that day have dreamed of, like to this,
To wed with a king's daughter, I exiled
And beggared? Not—what makes thy passion wild—
From loathing of thy bed; not over-fraught
With love for this new bride; not that I sought
To upbuild mine house with offspring: 'tis enough,
What thou hast borne: I make no word thereof:
But, first and greatest, that we all might dwell
In a fair house and want not, knowing well
That poor men have no friends, but far and near
Shunning and silence. Next, I sought to rear
Our sons in nurture worthy of my race,
And, raising brethren to them, in one place
Join both my houses, and be all from now
Prince-like and happy. What more need hast thou
Of children? And for me, it serves my star
To link in strength the children that now are
With those that shall be.

Have I counselled ill?
Not thine own self would say it, couldst thou still
One hour thy jealous flesh.—'Tis ever so!
Who looks for more in women? When the flow
Of love runs plain, why, all the world is fair:
But, once there fall some ill chance anywhere
To baulk that thirst, down in swift hate are trod
Men's dearest aims and noblest. Would to God
We mortals by some other seed could raise
Our fruits, and no blind women block our ways!
Then had there been no curse to wreck mankind.

LEADER.

Lord Jason, very subtly hast thou twined
Thy speech: but yet, though all athwart thy will
I speak, this is not well thou dost, but ill,
Betraying her who loved thee and was true.

MEDEA.

Surely I have my thoughts, and not a few
Have held me strange. To me it seemeth, when
A crafty tongue is given to evil men
'Tis like to wreck, not help them. Their own brain
Tempts them with lies to dare and dare again,
Till . . . no man hath enough of subtlety.
As thou—be not so seeming-fair to me
Nor deft of speech. One word will make thee fall.
Wert thou not false, 'twas thine to tell me all,
And charge me help thy marriage path, as I
Did love thee; not befool me with a lie.

JASON.

An easy task had that been! Aye, and thou
A loving aid, who canst not, even now,
Still that loud heart that surges like the tide!

MEDEA.

That moved thee not. Thine old barbarian bride,
The dog out of the east who loved thee sore,
She grew grey-haired, she served thy pride no more.

JASON.

Now understand for once! The girl to me
Is nothing, in this web of sovranty
I hold. I do but seek to save, even yet,
Thee: and for brethren to our sons beget
Young kings, to prosper all our lives again.

MEDEA.

God shelter me from prosperous days of pain,
And wealth that maketh wounds about my heart.

JASON.

Wilt change that prayer, and choose a wiser part?
Pray not to hold true sense for pain, nor rate
Thyself unhappy, being too fortunate.

MEDEA.

Aye, mock me; thou hast where to lay thine head,
But I go naked to mine exile.

JASON.

Tread thine own path! Thou hast made it all to be.

MEDEA.

How? By seducing and forsaking thee?

JASON.

By those vile curses on the royal halls
Let loose. . . .

MEDEA.

On thy house also, as chance falls,
I am a living curse.

JASON.

Oh, peace! Enough
Of these vain wars: I will no more thereof.
If thou wilt take from all that I possess
Aid for these babes and thine own helplessness
Of exile, speak thy bidding. Here I stand
Full-willed to succour thee with stintless hand,
And send my signet to old friends that dwell
On foreign shores, who will entreat thee well.
Refuse, and thou shalt do a deed most vain.
But cast thy rage away, and thou shalt gain
Much, and lose little for thine anger's sake.

MEDEA.

I will not seek thy friends. I will not take
Thy givings. Give them not. Fruits of a stem
Unholy bring no blessing after them.

JASON.

Now God in heaven be witness, all my heart
Is willing, in all ways, to do its part
For thee and for thy babes. But nothing good
Can please thee. In sheer savageness of mood
Thou drivest from thee every friend. Wherefore
I warrant thee, thy pains shall be the more.

[He goes slowly away]

MEDEA.

Go: thou art weary for the new delight
Thou wooest, so long tarrying out of sight
Of her sweet chamber. Go, fulfil thy pride,
O bridegroom! For it may be, such a bride
Shall wait thee,—yea, God heareth me in this—
As thine own heart shall sicken ere it kiss.


CHORUS.

Alas, the Love that falleth like a flood,
Strong-winged and transitory:
Why praise ye him? What beareth he of good
To man, or glory?
Yet Love there is that moves in gentleness,
Heart-filling, sweetest of all powers that bless.
Loose not on me, O Holder of man's heart,
Thy golden quiver,
Nor steep in poison of desire the dart
That heals not ever.

The pent hate of the word that cavilleth,
The strife that hath no fill,
Where once was fondness; and the mad heart's breath
For strange love panting still:
O Cyprian, cast me not on these; but sift,
Keen-eyed, of love the good and evil gift.
Make Innocence my friend, God's fairest star,
Yea, and abate not
The rare sweet beat of bosoms without war,
That love, and hate not.

Others.

Home of my heart, land of my own,
Cast me not, nay, for pity,
Out on my ways, helpless, alone,
Where the feet fail in the mire and stone,
A woman without a city.
Ah, not that! Better the end:
The green grave cover me rather,
If a break must come in the days I know,
And the skies be changed and the earth below;
For the weariest road that man may wend
Is forth from the home of his father.

Lo, we have seen: 'tis not a song
Sung, nor learned of another.
For whom hast thou in thy direst wrong
For comfort? Never a city strong
To hide thee, never a brother.
Ah, but the man—cursèd be he,
Cursèd beyond recover,
Who openeth, shattering, seal by seal,
A friend's clean heart, then turns his heel,
Deaf unto love: never in me
Friend shall he know nor lover.

[While Medea is waiting downcast, seated upon her door-step, there passes from the left a traveller with followers. As he catches sight of Medea he stops]

AEGEUS.

Have joy, Medea! 'Tis the homeliest Word that old friends can greet with, and the best.

MEDEA. [looking up, surprised]

Oh, joy on thee, too, Aegeus, gentle king Of Athens!—But whence com'st thou journeying?

AEGEUS.

From Delphi now and the old encaverned stair. . . .

MEDEA.

Where Earth's heart speaks in song? What mad'st thou there?

AEGEUS.

Prayed heaven for children—the same search alway.

MEDEA.

Children? Ah God! Art childless to this day?

AEGEUS.

So God hath willed. Childless and desolate.

MEDEA.

What word did Phœbus speak, to change thy fate?

AEGEUS.

Riddles, too hard for mortal man to read.

MEDEA.

Which I may hear?

AEGEUS.

Assuredly: they need A rarer wit.

MEDEA.

How said he?

AEGEUS.

Not to spill Life's wine, nor seek for more. . . .

MEDEA.

Until?

AEGEUS.

Until I tread the hearth-stone of my sires of yore.

MEDEA.

And what should bring thee here, by Creon's shore?

AEGEUS.

One Pittheus know'st thou, high lord of Trozên?

MEDEA.

Aye, Pelops' son, a man most pure of sin.

AEGEUS.

Him I would ask, touching Apollo's will.

MEDEA.

Much use in God's ways hath he, and much skill.

AEGEUS.

And, long years back he was my battle-friend,
The truest e'er man had.

MEDEA.

Well, may God send
Good hap to thee, and grant all thy desire.

AEGEUS.

But thou . . . ? Thy frame is wasted, and the fire
Dead in thine eyes.

MEDEA.

Aegeus, my husband is
The falsest man in the world.

AEGEUS.

What word is this?
Say clearly what thus makes thy visage dim?

MEDEA.

He is false to me, who never injured him.

AEGEUS.

What hath he done? Show all, that I may see.

MEDEA.

Ta'en him a wife; a wife, set over me
To rule his house.

AEGEUS.

He hath not dared to do,
Jason, a thing so shameful?

MEDEA.

Aye, 'tis true:
And those he loved of yore have no place now.

AEGEUS.

Some passion sweepeth him? Or is it thou
He turns from?

MEDEA.

Passion, passion to betray
His dearest!

AEGEUS.

Shame be his, so fallen away
From honour!

MEDEA.

Passion to be near a throne,
A king's heir!

AEGEUS.

How, who gives the bride? Say on.

MEDEA.

Creon, who o'er all Corinth standeth chief.

AEGEUS.

Woman, thou hast indeed much cause for grief.

MEDEA.

'Tis ruin.—And they have cast me out as well.

AEGEUS.

Who? 'Tis a new wrong this, and terrible.

MEDEA.

Creon the king, from every land and shore. . . .

AEGEUS.

And Jason suffers him? Oh, 'tis too sore!

MEDEA.

He loveth to bear bravely ills like these!
But, Aegeus, by thy beard, oh, by thy knees,
I pray thee, and I give me for thine own,
Thy suppliant, pity me! Oh, pity one
So miserable. Thou never wilt stand there
And see me cast out friendless to despair.
Give me a home in Athens . . . by the fire
Of thine own hearth! Oh, so may thy desire
Of children be fulfilled of God, and thou
Die happy! . . . Thou canst know not; even now
Thy prize is won! I, I will make of thee
A childless man no more. The seed shall be,
I swear it, sown. Such magic herbs I know.

AEGEUS.

Woman, indeed my heart goes forth to show
This help to thee, first for religion's sake,
Then for thy promised hope, to heal my ache
Of childlessness. 'Tis this hath made mine whole
Life as a shadow, and starved out my soul.
But thus it stands with me. Once make thy way
To Attic earth, I, as in law I may,
Will keep thee and befriend. But in this land,
Where Creon rules, I may not raise my hand
To shelter thee. Move of thine own essay
To seek my house, there thou shalt alway stay,
Inviolate, never to be seized again.
But come thyself from Corinth. I would fain
Even in foreign eyes be alway just.

MEDEA.

'Tis well. Give me an oath wherein to trust
And all that man could ask thou hast granted me.

AEGEUS.

Dost trust me not? Or what thing troubleth thee?

MEDEA.

I trust thee. But so many, far and near,
Do hate me—all King Pelias' house, and here
Creon. Once bound by oaths and sanctities
Thou canst not yield me up for such as these
To drag from Athens. But a spoken word,
No more, to bind thee, which no God hath heard. . .
The embassies, methinks, would come and go:
They all are friends to thee. . . . Ah me, I know
Thou wilt not list to me! So weak am I,
And they full-filled with gold and majesty.

AEGEUS.

Methinks 'tis a far foresight, this thine oath.
Still, if thou so wilt have it, nothing loath
Am I to serve thee. Mine own hand is so
The stronger, if I have this plea to show
Thy persecutors: and for thee withal
The bond more sure.—On what God shall I call?

MEDEA.

Swear by the Earth thou treadest, by the Sun,
Sire of my sires, and all the gods as one. . . .

AEGEUS.

To do what thing or not do? Make all plain.

MEDEA.

Never thyself to cast me out again.
Nor let another, whatsoe'er his plea,
Take me, while thou yet livest and art free.

AEGEUS.

Never: so hear me, Earth, and the great star
Of daylight, and all other gods that are!

MEDEA.

'Tis well: and if thou falter from thy vow . . . ?

AEGEUS.

God's judgment on the godless break my brow!

MEDEA.

Go! Go thy ways rejoicing.—All is bright
And clear before me. Go: and ere the night
Myself will follow, when the deed is done
I purpose, and the end I thirst for won.

[Aegeus and his train depart]

CHORUS.

Farewell: and Maia's guiding Son
Back lead thee to thy hearth and fire,
Aegeus; and all the long desire
That wasteth thee, at last be won:
Our eyes have seen thee as thou art,
A gentle and a righteous heart.

MEDEA.

God, and God's Justice, and ye blinding Skies!
At last the victory dawneth! Yea, mine eyes
See, and my foot is on the mountain's brow.
Mine enemies! Mine enemies, oh, now
Atonement cometh! Here at my worst hour
A friend is found, a very port of power
To save my shipwreck. Here will I make fast
Mine anchor, and escape them at the last
In Athens' wallèd hill.—But ere the end
'Tis meet I show thee all my counsel, friend:
Take it, no tale to make men laugh withal!

Straightway to Jason I will send some thrall
To entreat him to my presence. Comes he here,
Then with soft reasons will I feed his ear,
How his will now is my will, how all things
Are well, touching this marriage-bed of kings
For which I am betrayed—all wise and rare
And profitable! Yet will I make one prayer,
That my two children be no more exiled
But stay. . . . Oh, not that I would leave a child
Here upon angry shores till those have laughed
Who hate me: 'tis that I will slay by craft
The king's daughter. With gifts they shall be sent,
Gifts to the bride to spare their banishment,
Fine robings and a carcanet of gold.
Which raiment let her once but take, and fold
About her, a foul death that girl shall die
And all who touch her in her agony.
Such poison shall they drink, my robe and wreath!

Howbeit, of that no more. I gnash my teeth
Thinking on what a path my feet must tread
Thereafter. I shall lay those children dead—
Mine, whom no hand shall steal from me away!
Then, leaving Jason childless, and the day
As night above him, I will go my road
To exile, flying, flying from the blood
Of these my best-beloved, and having wrought
All horror, so but one thing reach me not,
The laugh of them that hate us.

Let it come!
What profits life to me? I have no home,
No country now, nor shield from any wrong.
That was my evil hour, when down the long
Halls of my father out I stole, my will
Chained by a Greek man's voice, who still, oh, still,
If God yet live, shall all requited be.
For never child of mine shall Jason see
Hereafter living, never child beget
From his new bride, who this day, desolate
Even as she made me desolate, shall die
Shrieking amid my poisons. . . . Names have I
Among your folk? One light? One weak of hand?
An eastern dreamer?—Nay, but with the brand
Of strange suns burnt, my hate, by God above,
A perilous thing, and passing sweet my love!
For these it is that make life glorious.

LEADER.

Since thou has bared thy fell intent to us
I, loving thee, and helping in their need
Man's laws, adjure thee, dream not of this deed!

MEDEA.

There is no other way.—I pardon thee
Thy littleness, who art not wronged like me.

LEADER.

Thou canst not kill the fruit thy body bore!

MEDEA.

Yes: if the man I hate be pained the more.

LEADER.

And thou made miserable, most miserable?

MEDEA.

Oh, let it come! All words of good or ill
Are wasted now.


[She claps her hands: the Nurse comes out from the house]


Ho, woman; get thee gone
And lead lord Jason hither. . . . There is none
Like thee, to work me these high services.
But speak no word of what my purpose is,
As thou art faithful, thou, and bold to try
All succours, and a woman even as I!

[The Nurse departs]


CHORUS.

The sons of Erechtheus, the olden,
Whom high gods planted of yore
In an old land of heaven upholden,
A proud land untrodden of war:
They are hungered, and, lo, their desire
With wisdom is fed as with meat:
In their skies is a shining of fire,
A joy in the fall of their feet:
And thither, with manifold dowers,
From the North, from the hills, from the morn,
The Muses did gather their powers,
That a child of the Nine should be born;
And Harmony, sown as the flowers,
Grew gold in the acres of corn.

And Cephîsus, the fair-flowing river—
The Cyprian dipping her hand
Hath drawn of his dew, and the shiver
Of her touch is as joy in the land.
For her breathing in fragrance is written,
And in music her path as she goes,
And the cloud of her hair, it is litten
With stars of the wind-woven rose.
So fareth she ever and ever,
And forth of her bosom is blown,
As dews on the winds of the river,
An hunger of passions unknown.
Strong Loves of all godlike endeavour,
Whom Wisdom shall throne on her throne.

Some Women.

But Cephîsus the fair-flowing,
Will he bear thee on his shore?
Shall the land that succours all, succour thee,
Who art foul among thy kind,
With the tears of children blind?
Dost thou see the red gash growing,
Thine own burden dost thou see?
Every side, Every way,
Lo, we kneel to thee and pray:
By thy knees, by thy soul, O woman wild!
One at least thou canst not slay,
Not thy child!

Others.

Hast thou ice that thou shalt bind it
To thy breast, and make thee dead
To thy children, to thine own spirit's pain?
When the hand knows what it dares,
When thine eyes look into theirs,
Shalt thou keep by tears unblinded
Thy dividing of the slain?
These be deeds Not for thee:
These be things that cannot be!
Thy babes—though thine hardihood be fell,
When they cling about thy knee,
'Twill be well!

[Enter Jason]

JASON.

I answer to thy call. Though full of hate
Thou be, I yet will not so far abate
My kindness for thee, nor refuse mine ear.
Say in what new desire thou hast called me here.

MEDEA.

Jason, I pray thee, for my words but now
Spoken, forgive me. My bad moods. . . . Oh, thou
At least wilt strive to bear with them! There be
Many old deeds of love 'twixt me and thee.
Lo, I have reasoned with myself apart
And chidden: "Why must I be mad, O heart
Of mine: and raging against one whose word
Is wisdom: making me a thing abhorred
To them that rule the land, and to mine own
Husband, who doth but that which, being done,
Will help us all—to wed a queen, and get
Young kings for brethren to my sons? And yet
I rage alone, and cannot quit my rage—
What aileth me?—when God sends harbourage
So simple? Have I not my children? Know
I not we are but exiles, and must go
Beggared and friendless else?" Thought upon thought
So pressed me, till I knew myself full-fraught
With bitterness of heart and blinded eyes.
So now—I give thee thanks: and hold thee wise
To have caught this anchor for our aid. The fool
Was I; who should have been thy friend, thy tool;
Gone wooing with thee, stood at thy bed-side
Serving, and welcomed duteously thy bride.
But, as we are, we are—I will not say
Mere evil—women! Why must thou to-day
Turn strange, and make thee like some evil thing,
Childish, to meet my childish passioning?
See, I surrender: and confess that then
I had bad thoughts, but now have turned again
And found my wiser mind.


[She claps her hands]

Ho, children! Run
Quickly! Come hither, out into the sun,

[The Children come from the house, followed by their Attendant]

And greet your father. Welcome him with us,
And throw quite, quite away, as mother does,
Your anger against one so dear. Our peace
Is made, and all the old bad war shall cease
For ever.—Go, and take his hand. . . .

[As the Children go to Jason, she suddenly bursts into tears. The Children quickly return to her: she recovers herself, smiling amid her tears]

Ah me,
I am full of hidden horrors! . . . Shall it be
A long time more, my children, that ye live
To reach to me those dear, dear arms? . . . Forgive!
I am so ready with my tears to-day,
And full of dread. . . . I sought to smooth away
The long strife with your father, and, lo, now
I have all drowned with tears this little brow!

[She wipes the child's face]

LEADER.

O'er mine eyes too there stealeth a pale tear:
Let the evil rest, O God, let it rest here!

JASON.

Woman, indeed I praise thee now, nor say
Ill of thine other hour. 'Tis nature's way,
A woman needs must stir herself to wrath,
When work of marriage by so strange a path
Crosseth her lord. But thou, thine heart doth wend
The happier road. Thou hast seen, ere quite the end,
What choice must needs be stronger: which to do
Shows a wise-minded woman. . . . And for you,
Children; your father never has forgot
Your needs. If God but help him, he hath wrought
A strong deliverance for your weakness. Yea,
I think you, with your brethren, yet one day
Shall be the mightiest voices in this land.
Do you grow tall and strong. Your father's hand
Guideth all else, and whatso power divine
Hath alway helped him. . . . Ah, may it be mine
To see you yet in manhood, stern of brow,
Strong-armed, set high o'er those that hate me. . . .

How?
Woman, thy face is turned. Thy cheek is swept
With pallor of strange tears. Dost not accept
Gladly and of good will my benisons?

MEDEA.

'Tis nothing. Thinking of these little ones. . . .

JASON.

Take heart, then. I will guard them from all ill.

MEDEA.

I do take heart. Thy word I never will
Mistrust. Alas, a woman's bosom bears
But woman's courage, a thing born for tears.

JASON.

What ails thee?—All too sore thou weepest there.

MEDEA.

I was their mother! When I heard thy prayer
Of long life for them, there swept over me
A horror, wondering how these things shall be.

But for the matter of my need that thou
Should speak with me, part I have said, and now
Will finish.—Seeing it is the king's behest
To cast me out from Corinth . . . aye, and best,
Far best, for me—I know it—not to stay
Longer to trouble thee and those who sway
The realm, being held to all their house a foe. . . .
Behold, I spread my sails, and meekly go
To exile. But our children. . . . Could this land
Be still their home awhile: could thine own hand
But guide their boyhood. . . . Seek the king, and pray
His pity, that he bid thy children stay!

JASON.

He is hard to move. Yet surely 'twere well done.

MEDEA.

Bid her—for thy sake, for a daughters boon. . . .

JASON.

Well thought! Her I can fashion to my mind.

MEDEA.

Surely. She is a woman like her kind. . . .
Yet I will aid thee in thy labour; I
Will send her gifts, the fairest gifts that lie
In the hands of men, things of the days of old,
Fine robings and a carcanet of gold,
By the boys' hands.—Go, quick, some handmaiden,
And fetch the raiment.

[A handmaid goes into the house]

Ah, her cup shall then
Be filled indeed! What more should woman crave,
Being wed with thee, the bravest of the brave,
And girt with raiment which of old the sire
Of all my house, the Sun, gave, steeped in fire,
To his own fiery race?

[The handmaid has returned bearing the Gifts]

Come, children, lift
With heed these caskets. Bear them as your gift
To her, being bride and princess and of right
Blessed!—I think she will not hold them light.

JASON.

Fond woman, why wilt empty thus thine hand
Of treasure? Doth King Creon's castle stand
In stint of raiment, or in stint of gold?
Keep these, and make no gift. For if she hold
Jason of any worth at all, I swear
Chattels like these will not weigh more with her.

MEDEA.

Ah, chide me not! 'Tis written, gifts persuade
The gods in heaven; and gold is stronger made
Than words innumerable to bend men's ways.
Fortune is hers. God maketh great her days:
Young and a crownèd queen! And banishment
For those two babes. . . . I would not gold were spent,
But life's blood, ere that come.

My children, go
Forth into those rich halls, and, bowing low,
Beseech your father's bride, whom I obey,
Ye be not, of her mercy, cast away
Exiled: and give the caskets—above all
Mark this!—to none but her, to hold withal
And keep. . . . Go quick! And let your mother know
Soon the good tiding that she longs for. . . . Go!

[She goes quickly into the house. Jason and the Children with their Attendant depart]


CHORUS.

Now I have no hope more of the children's living;
No hope more. They are gone forth unto death.
The bride, she taketh the poison of their giving:
She taketh the bounden gold and openeth;
And the crown, the crown, she lifteth about her brow,
Where the light brown curls are clustering. No hope now!

O sweet and cloudy gleam of the garments golden!
The robe, it hath clasped her breast and the crown her head.
Then, then, she decketh the bride, as a bride of olden
Story, that goeth pale to the kiss of the dead.
For the ring hath closed, and the portion of death is there;
And she flieth not, but perisheth unaware.

Some Women.

O bridegroom, bridegroom of the kiss so cold,
Art thou wed with princes, art thou girt with gold,
Who know'st not, suing
For thy child's undoing,
And, on her thou lovest, for a doom untold?
How art thou fallen from thy place of old!

Others.

O Mother, Mother, what hast thou to reap,
When the harvest cometh, between wake and sleep?
For a heart unslaken,
For a troth forsaken,
Lo, babes that call thee from a bloody deep:
And thy love returns not. Get thee forth and weep!

[Enter the Attendant with the two Children: Medea comes out from the house]

ATTENDANT.

Mistress, these children from their banishment
Are spared. The royal bride hath mildly bent
Her hand to accept thy gifts, and all is now
Peace for the children.—Ha, why standest thou
Confounded, when good fortune draweth near?

MEDEA.

Ah God!

ATTENDANT.

This chimes not with the news I bear.

MEDEA.

O God, have mercy!

ATTENDANT.

Is some word of wrath
Here hidden that I knew not of? And hath
My hope to give thee joy so cheated me?

MEDEA.

Thou givest what thou givest: I blame not thee.

ATTENDANT.

Thy brows are all o'ercast: thine eyes are filled. . . .

MEDEA.

For bitter need, Old Man! The gods have willed,
And my own evil mind, that this should come.

ATTENDANT.

Take heart! Thy sons one day will bring thee home.

MEDEA.

Home? . . . I have others to send home. Woe's me!

ATTENDANT.

Be patient. Many a mother before thee
Hath parted from her children. We poor things
Of men must needs endure what fortune brings.

MEDEA.

I will endure.—Go thou within, and lay
All ready that my sons may need to-day.

[The Attendant goes into the house]

O children, children mine: and you have found
A land and home, where, leaving me discrowned
And desolate, forever you will stay,
Motherless children! And I go my way
To other lands, an exile, ere you bring
Your fruits home, ere I see you prospering
Or know your brides, or deck the bridal bed,
All flowers, and lift your torches overhead.

Oh cursèd be mine own hard heart! 'Twas all
In vain, then, that I reared you up, so tall
And fair; in vain I bore you, and was torn
With those long pitiless pains, when you were born.
Ah, wondrous hopes my poor heart had in you,
How you would tend me in mine age, and do
The shroud about me with your own dear hands,
When I lay cold, blessèd in all the lands
That knew us. And that gentle thought is dead!
You go, and I live on, to eat the bread
Of long years, to myself most full of pain.
And never your dear eyes, never again,
Shall see your mother, far away being thrown
To other shapes of life. . . . My babes, my own,
Why gaze ye so?—What is it that ye see?—
And laugh with that last laughter? . . . Woe is me,
What shall I do?

Women, my strength is gone,
Gone like a dream, since once I looked upon
Those shining faces. . . . I can do it not.
Good-bye to all the thoughts that burned so hot
Aforetime! I will take and hide them far,
Far, from men's eyes. Why should I seek a war
So blind: by these babes' wounds to sting again
Their father's heart, and win myself a pain
Twice deeper? Never, never! I forget
Henceforward all I laboured for.

And yet,
What is it with me? Would I be a thing
Mocked at, and leave mine enemies to sting
Unsmitten? It must be. O coward heart,
Ever to harbour such soft words!—Depart Out of my sight, ye twain.

[The Children go in]

And they whose eyes
Shall hold it sin to share my sacrifice,
On their heads be it! My hand shall swerve not now.

Ah, Ah, thou Wrath within me! Do not thou,
Do not. . . . Down, down, thou tortured thing, and spare
My children! They will dwell with us, aye, there
Far off, and give thee peace.

Too late, too late!
By all Hell's living agonies of hate,
They shall not take my little ones alive
To make their mock with! Howsoe'er I strive
The thing is doomed; it shall not escape now
From being. Aye, the crown is on the brow,
And the robe girt, and in the robe that high
Queen dying.

I know all. Yet . . . seeing that I
Must go so long a journey, and these twain
A longer yet and darker, I would fain
Speak with them, ere I go.

[A handmaid brings the Children out again]

Come, children; stand
A little from me. There. Reach out your hand,
Your right hand—so—to mother: and good-bye!

[She has kept them hitherto at arm's length: but at the touch of their hands, her resolution breaks down, and she gathers them passionately into her arms]

Oh, darling hand! Oh, darling mouth, and eye,
And royal mien, and bright brave faces clear,
May you be blessèd, but not here! What here
Was yours, your father stole. . . . Ah God, the glow
Of cheek on cheek, the tender touch; and Oh,
Sweet scent of childhood. . . . Go! Go! . . . Am I blind? . . .
Mine eyes can see not, when I look to find
Their places. I am broken by the wings
Of evil. . . . Yea, I know to what bad things
I go, but louder than all thought doth cry
Anger, which maketh man's worst misery.

[She follows the Children into the house]

CHORUS.

My thoughts have roamed a cloudy land,
And heard a fierier music fall
Than woman's heart should stir withal:
And yet some Muse majestical,
Unknown, hath hold of woman's hand,
Seeking for Wisdom—not in all:
A feeble seed, a scattered band,
Thou yet shalt find in lonely places,
Not dead amongst us, nor our faces
Turned alway from the Muses' call.

And thus my thought would speak: that she
Who ne'er hath borne a child nor known
Is nearer to felicity:
Unlit she goeth and alone,
With little understanding what
A child's touch means of joy or woe,
And many toils she beareth not.

But they within whose garden fair
That gentle plant hath blown, they go
Deep-written all their days with care—
To rear the children, to make fast
Their hold, to win them wealth; and then
Much darkness, if the seed at last
Bear fruit in good or evil men!
And one thing at the end of all
Abideth, that which all men dread:
The wealth is won, the limbs are bred
To manhood, and the heart withal
Honest: and, lo, where Fortune smiled,
Some change, and what hath fallen? Hark!
'Tis death slow winging to the dark,
And in his arms what was thy child.

What therefore doth it bring of gain
To man, whose cup stood full before,
That God should send this one thing more
Of hunger and of dread, a door
Set wide to every wind of pain?

[Medea comes out alone from the house]

MEDEA.

Friends, this long hour I wait on Fortune's eyes,
And strain my senses in a hot surmise
What passeth on that hill.—Ha! even now
There comes . . . 'tis one of Jason's men, I trow.
His wild-perturbèd breath doth warrant me
The tidings of some strange calamity.

[Enter Messenger]

MESSENGER.

O dire and ghastly deed! Get thee away,
Medea! Fly! Nor let behind thee stay
One chariot's wing, one keel that sweeps the seas. . . .

MEDEA.

And what hath chanced, to cause such flights as these?

MESSENGER.

The maiden princess lieth—and her sire,
The king—both murdered by thy poison-fire.

MEDEA.

Most happy tiding! Which thy name prefers
Henceforth among my friends and well-wishers.

MESSENGER.

What say'st thou? Woman, is thy mind within
Clear, and not raving? Thou art found in sin
Most bloody wrought against the king's high head,
And laughest at the tale, and hast no dread?

MEDEA.

I have words also that could answer well
Thy word. But take thine ease, good friend, and tell,
How died they? Hath it been a very foul
Death, prithee? That were comfort to my soul.

MESSENGER.

When thy two children, hand in hand entwined,
Came with their father, and passed on to find
The new-made bridal rooms, Oh, we were glad,
We thralls, who ever loved thee well, and had
Grief in thy grief. And straight there passed a word
From ear to ear, that thou and thy false lord
Had poured peace offering upon wrath foregone.
A right glad welcome gave we them, and one
Kissed the small hand, and one the shining hair:
Myself, for very joy, I followed where
The women's rooms are. There our mistress . . . she
Whom now we name so . . . thinking not to see
Thy little pair, with glad and eager brow
Sate waiting Jason. Then she saw, and slow
Shrouded her eyes, and backward turned again,
Sick that thy children should come near her. Then
Thy husband quick went forward, to entreat
The young maid's fitful wrath. "Thou will not meet
Love's coming with unkindness? Nay, refrain
Thy suddenness, and turn thy face again,
Holding as friends all that to me are dear,
Thine husband. And accept these robes they bear
As gifts: and beg thy father to unmake
His doom of exile on them—for my sake."
When once she saw the raiment, she could still
Her joy no more, but gave him all his will.
And almost ere the father and the two
Children were gone from out the room, she drew
The flowerèd garments forth, and sate her down
To her arraying: bound the golden crown
Through her long curls, and in a mirror fair
Arranged their separate clusters, smiling there
At the dead self that faced her. Then aside
She pushed her seat, and paced those chambers wide
Alone, her white foot poising delicately—
So passing joyful in those gifts was she!—
And many a time would pause, straight-limbed, and wheel
Her head to watch the long fold to her heel
Sweeping. And then came something strange. Her cheek
Seemed pale, and back with crooked steps and weak
Groping of arms she walked, and scarcely found
Her old seat, that she fell not to the ground.

Among the handmaids was a woman old
And grey, who deemed, I think, that Pan had hold
Upon her, or some spirit, and raised a keen
Awakening shout; till through her lips was seen
A white foam crawling, and her eyeballs back
Twisted, and all her face dead pale for lack
Of life: and while that old dame called, the cry
Turned strangely to its opposite, to die
Sobbing. Oh, swiftly then one woman flew
To seek her father's rooms, one for the new
Bridegroom, to tell the tale. And all the place
Was loud with hurrying feet.

So long a space
As a swift walker on a measured way
Would pace a furlong's course in, there she lay
Speechless, with veilèd lids. Then wide her eyes
She oped, and wildly, as she strove to rise,
Shrieked: for two diverse waves upon her rolled
Of stabbing death. The carcanet of gold
That gripped her brow was molten in a dire
And wondrous river of devouring fire.
And those fine robes, the gift thy children gave—
God's mercy!—everywhere did lap and lave
The delicate flesh; till up she sprang, and fled,
A fiery pillar, shaking locks and head
This way and that, seeking to cast the crown
Somewhere away. But like a thing nailed down
The burning gold held fast the anadem,
And through her locks, the more she scattered them,
Came fire the fiercer, till to earth she fell
A thing—save to her sire—scarce nameable,
And strove no more. That cheek of royal mien,
Where was it—or the place where eyes had been?
Only from crown and temples came faint blood
Shot through with fire. The very flesh, it stood
Out from the bones, as from a wounded pine
The gum starts, where those gnawing poisons fine
Bit in the dark—a ghastly sight! And touch
The dead we durst not. We had seen too much.

But that poor father, knowing not, had sped,
Swift to his daughter's room, and there the dead
Lay at his feet. He knelt, and groaning low,
Folded her in his arms, and kissed her: "Oh,
Unhappy child, what thing unnatural hath
So hideously undone thee? Or what wrath
Of gods, to make this old grey sepulchre
Childless of thee? Would God but lay me there
To die with thee, my daughter!" So he cried.
But after, when he stayed from tears, and tried
To uplift his old bent frame, lo, in the folds
Of those fine robes it held, as ivy holds
Strangling among your laurel boughs. Oh, then
A ghastly struggle came! Again, again,
Up on his knee he writhed; but that dead breast
Clung still to his: till, wild, like one possessed,
He dragged himself half free; and, lo, the live
Flesh parted; and he laid him down to strive
No more with death, but perish; for the deep
Had risen above his soul. And there they sleep,
At last, the old proud father and the bride,
Even as his tears had craved it, side by side.

For thee—Oh, no word more! Thyself will know
How best to baffle vengeance. . . . Long ago
I looked upon man's days, and found a grey
Shadow. And this thing more I surely say,
That those of all men who are counted wise,
Strong wits, devisers of great policies,
Do pay the bitterest toll. Since life began,
Hath there in God's eye stood one happy man?
Fair days roll on, and bear more gifts or less
Of fortune, but to no man happiness.

[Exit Messenger]

CHORUS.

Some Women.

Wrath upon wrath, meseems, this day shall fall
From God on Jason! He hath earned it all.

Other Women.

O miserable maiden, all my heart
Is torn for thee, so sudden to depart
From thy king's chambers and the light above
To darkness, all for sake of Jason's love!

MEDEA.

Women, my mind is clear. I go to slay
My children with all speed, and then, away
From hence; not wait yet longer till they stand
Beneath another and an angrier hand
To die. Yea, howsoe'er I shield them, die
They must. And, seeing that they must, 'tis I
Shall slay them, I their mother, touched of none
Beside. Oh, up and get thine armour on,
My heart! Why longer tarry we to win
Our crown of dire inevitable sin?
Take up thy sword, O poor right hand of mine,
Thy sword: then onward to the thin-drawn line
Where life turns agony. Let there be naught
Of softness now: and keep thee from that thought,
'Born of thy flesh,' 'thine own belovèd.' Now,
For one brief day, forget thy children: thou
Shalt weep hereafter. Though thou slay them, yet
Sweet were they. . . . I am sore unfortunate.

[She goes into the house]

CHORUS.

Some Women.

O Earth, our mother; and thou
All-seër, arrowy crown
Of Sunlight, manward now
Look down, Oh, look down!
Look upon one accurst,
Ere yet in blood she twine
Red hands—blood that is thine!
O Sun, save her first!
She is thy daughter still,
Of thine own golden line;
Save her! Or shall man spill
The life divine?
Give peace, O Fire that diest not! Send thy spell
To stay her yet, to lift her afar, afar—
A torture-changèd spirit, a voice of Hell
Wrought of old wrongs and war!

Others.

Alas for the mother's pain
Wasted! Alas the dear
Life that was born in vain!
Woman, what mak'st thou here,
Thou from beyond the Gate
Where dim Symplêgades
Clash in the dark blue seas,
The shores where death doth wait?
Why hast thou taken on thee,
To make us desolate,
This anger of misery
And guilt of hate?
For fierce are the smitings back of blood once shed
Where love hath been: God's wrath upon them that kill,
And an anguished earth, and the wonder of the dead
Haunting as music still. . . .

[A cry is heard within]

A WOMAN.

Hark! Did ye hear? Heard ye the children's cry?

ANOTHER.

O miserable woman! O abhorred!

A CHILD. [within]

What shall I do? What is it? Keep me fast
From mother!

The OTHER CHILD. [within]

I know nothing. Brother! Oh,
I think she means to kill us.

A WOMAN.

Let me go!
I will—Help! Help!—and save them at the last.

A CHILD.

Yes, in God's name! Help quickly ere we die!

The OTHER CHILD.

She has almost caught me now. She has a sword.

[Many of the Women are now beating at the barred door to get in. Others are standing apart]

WOMEN AT THE DOOR

Thou stone, thou thing of iron! Wilt verily
Spill with thine hand that life, the vintage stored
Of thine own agony?

THE OTHER WOMEN

A Mother slew her babes in days of yore,
One, only one, from dawn to eventide,
Ino, god-maddened, whom the Queen of Heaven
Set frenzied, flying to the dark: and she
Cast her for sorrow to the wide salt sea,
Forth from those rooms of murder unforgiven,
Wild-footed from a white crag of the shore,
And clasping still her children twain, she died.

O Love of Woman, charged with sorrow sore,
What hast thou wrought upon us? What beside
Resteth to tremble for?

[Enter hurriedly Jason and Attendants]

JASON.

Ye women by this doorway clustering
Speak, is the doer of the ghastly thing
Yet here, or fled? What hopeth she of flight?
Shall the deep yawn to shield her? Shall the height
Send wings, and hide her in the vaulted sky
To work red murder on her lords, and fly
Unrecompensed? But let her go! My care
Is but to save my children, not for her.
Let them she wronged requite her as they may.
I care not. 'Tis my sons I must some way
Save, ere the kinsmen of the dead can win
From them the payment of their mother's sin.

LEADER.

Unhappy man, indeed thou knowest not
What dark place thou art come to! Else, God wot,
Jason, no word like these could fall from thee.

JASON.

What is it?—Ha! The woman would kill me?

LEADER.

Thy sons are dead, slain by their mother's hand.

JASON.

How? Not the children. . . . I scarce understand. . . .
O God, thou hast broken me!

LEADER.

Think of those twain As things once fair, that ne'er shall bloom again.

JASON.

Where did she murder them? In that old room?

LEADER.

Open, and thou shalt see thy children's doom.

JASON.

Ho, thralls! Unloose me yonder bars! Make more
Of speed! Wrench out the jointing of the door.
And show my two-edged curse, the children dead,
The woman. . . . Oh, this sword upon her head. . . .

[While the Attendants are still battering at the door Medea appears on the roof, standing on a chariot of winged Dragons, in which are the children's bodies]

MEDEA.

What make ye at my gates? Why batter ye
With brazen bars, seeking the dead and me
Who slew them? Peace! . . . And thou, if aught of mine
Thou needest, speak, though never touch of thine
Shall scathe me more. Out of his firmament
My fathers' father, the high Sun, hath sent
This, that shall save me from mine enemies' rage.

JASON.

Thou living hate! Thou wife in every age
Abhorrèd, blood-red mother, who didst kill
My sons, and make me as the dead: and still
Canst take the sunshine to thine eyes, and smell
The green earth, reeking from thy deed of hell;
I curse thee! Now, Oh, now mine eyes can see,
That then were blinded, when from savagery
Of eastern chambers, from a cruel land,
To Greece and home I gathered in mine hand
Thee, thou incarnate curse: one that betrayed
Her home, her father, her . . . Oh, God hath laid
Thy sins on me!—I knew, I knew, there lay
A brother murdered on thy hearth that day
When thy first footstep fell on Argo's hull. . . .
Argo, my own, my swift and beautiful

That was her first beginning. Then a wife
I made her in my house. She bore to life
Children: and now for love, for chambering
And men's arms, she hath murdered them! A thing
Not one of all the maids of Greece, not one,
Had dreamed of; whom I spurned, and for mine own
Chose thee, a bride of hate to me and death,
Tigress, not woman, beast of wilder breath
Than Skylla shrieking o'er the Tuscan sea.
Enough! No scorn of mine can reach to thee,
Such iron is o'er thine eyes. Out from my road,
Thou crime-begetter, blind with children's blood!
And let me weep alone the bitter tide
That sweepeth Jason's days, no gentle bride
To speak with more, no child to look upon
Whom once I reared . . . all, all for ever gone!

MEDEA.

An easy answer had I to this swell
Of speech, but Zeus our father knoweth well,
All I for thee have wrought, and thou for me.
So let it rest. This thing was not to be,
That thou shouldst live a merry life, my bed
Forgotten and my heart uncomforted,
Thou nor thy princess: nor the king that planned
Thy marriage drive Medea from his land,
And suffer not. Call me what thing thou please,
Tigress or Skylla from the Tuscan seas:
My claws have gripped thine heart, and all things shine.

JASON.

Thou too hast grief. Thy pain is fierce as mine.

MEDEA.

I love the pain, so thou shalt laugh no more.

JASON.

Oh, what a womb of sin my children bore!

MEDEA.

Sons, did ye perish for your father's shame?

JASON.

How? It was not my hand that murdered them.

MEDEA.

'Twas thy false wooings, 'twas thy trampling pride.

JASON.

Thou hast said it! For thy lust of love they died.

MEDEA.

And love to women a slight thing should be?

JASON.

To women pure!—All thy vile life to thee!

MEDEA.

Think of thy torment. They are dead, they are dead!

JASON.

No: quick, great God; quick curses round thy head!

MEDEA.

The Gods know who began this work of woe.

JASON.

Thy heart and all its loathliness they know.

MEDEA.

Loathe on. . . . But, Oh, thy voice. It hurts me sore.

JASON.

Aye, and thine me. Wouldst hear me then no more?

MEDEA.

How? Show me but the way. 'Tis this I crave.

JASON.

Give me the dead to weep, and make their grave.

MEDEA.

Never! Myself will lay them in a still
Green sepulchre, where Hera by the Hill
Hath precinct holy, that no angry men
May break their graves and cast them forth again
To evil. So I lay on all this shore
Of Corinth a high feast for evermore
And rite, to purge them yearly of the stain
Of this poor blood. And I, to Pallas' plain
I go, to dwell beside Pandion's son,
Aegeus.—For thee, behold, death draweth on,
Evil and lonely, like thine heart: the hands
Of thine old Argo, rotting where she stands,
Shall smite thine head in twain, and bitter be
To the last end thy memories of me.

[She rises on the chariot and is slowly borne away]

JASON.

May They that hear the weeping child
Blast thee, and They that walk in blood!

MEDEA.

Thy broken vows, thy friends beguiled
Have shut for thee the ears of God.

JASON.

Go, thou art wet with children's tears!

MEDEA.

Go thou, and lay thy bride to sleep.

JASON.

Childless, I go, to weep and weep.

MEDEA.

Not yet! Age cometh and long years.

JASON.

My sons, mine own!

MEDEA.

Not thine, but mine . . .

JASON.

. . . Who slew them!

MEDEA.

Yes: to torture thee.

JASON.

Once let me kiss their lips, once twine
Mine arms and touch. . . . Ah, woe is me!

MEDEA.

Wouldst love them and entreat? But now
They were as nothing.

JASON.

At the last,
O God, to touch that tender brow!

MEDEA.

Thy words upon the wind are cast.

JASON.

Thou, Zeus, wilt hear me. All is said
For naught. I am but spurned away
And trampled by this tigress, red
With children's blood. Yet, come what may,
So far as thou hast granted, yea,
So far as yet my strength may stand,
I weep upon these dead, and say
Their last farewell, and raise my hand

To all the daemons of the air
In witness of these things; how she
Who slew them, will not suffer me
To gather up my babes, nor bear
To earth their bodies; whom, O stone
Of women, would I ne'er had known
Nor gotten, to be slain by thee!

[He casts himself upon the earth]

CHORUS.

Great treasure halls hath Zeus in heaven,
From whence to man strange dooms be given,
Past hope or fear.
And the end men looked for cometh not,
And a path is there where no man thought:
So hath it fallen here.

Footnotes

  1. Consider that a Greek audience would agree with the sentiments Jason expresses here even though the chorus implies that sympathy should lie with Medea’s cause. Athens was considered the cradle of Western Civilization in the time of Euripides and Greece was considered more advanced politically, socially, and academically than the rest of the world. The kingdom of Colchis, from which Medea sailed with Jason after helping him steal the Golden Fleece, was viewed by the Greeks as a land of uncivilized barbarians. Jason’s reasoning that he did Medea a service by freeing her from a life of savagery is one that would resonate with Euripides’ audience.

    — Emily, Owl Eyes Staff
  2. In Greek mythology, Eros (God of Love), son of Aphrodite, is portrayed as a boy with a golden bow who shoots arrows of desire at mortals and immortals alike. Not even Zeus can resist these arrows. Here, in reaction to Medea’s claim that she is responsible for her husband’s fame and for saving his life, Jason argues that it was Aphrodite’s son Eros that is responsible for her actions, and therefore he is relieved of all fault for remarrying and forsaking her. Jason finds a way to discredit all of Medea’s actions and relieve himself of any debt to her.

    — Emily, Owl Eyes Staff
  3. Notice how Euripides plays down Medea's powers as a sorceress by not explicitly stating how she helped Jason steal the Golden Fleece with magic. Here Medea calls attention to all she has done to help Jason achieve the success she is largely responsible for, going as far as to state that he owes his life to her.

    — Emily, Owl Eyes Staff
  4. Notice characters will make a general assertion like this that shapes the rest of their speech. The harsh anger mentioned here is the driving force behind Medea’s destructive actions and the tragic outcome of the play. Euripides seems to warn against this kind of rage as well other emotions that manifest as all consuming passion. The play warns against allowing ourselves to be consumed by our urges by portraying Jason as reprehensible for his ceaseless pursuit of social gain and his hubris and Medea at fault for her passionate love turned passionate hate for Jason.

    — Emily, Owl Eyes Staff
  5. Here, the chorus seems to turn on Medea. Throughout the play, the chorus has reinforced and supported Medea’s desire to seek revenge on Jason after he betrays her. However, when this vengeance crosses the line into killing her children, the chorus condemns Medea’s aims. Since the chorus is the moral center of the play, their reaction to her plans suggests that the audience should also condemn Medea’s bloodlust.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  6. Greek tragedians, especially Euripides, often include an “agon,” or contest of speeches. Medea is deemed the ultimate winner by the chorus for showing Jason’s disregard for oikos, the Greek familial values.

    — Emily, Owl Eyes Staff
  7. A reference to the common Greek idea that education made men less vigorous, this line also seems to speak to the idea presented by Creon that being too clever or cunning makes an individual wicked. Medea’s cleverness leading to the tragic outcome of the play is an example of a situation where cunning becomes harmful.

    — Emily, Owl Eyes Staff
  8. Respectable Athenian women were expected to stay inside their homes, having very little contact with the outside world except during religious festivals. Medea laments the state of womankind and resents that men who are wearied by staying indoors may go out and seek a merrier place among their peers . The Medea boldly explores the inferior place women held in Athenian society at a time when the concept would have seemed revolutionary.

    — Emily, Owl Eyes Staff
  9. Phoebus was another name for the Olympian Apollo, the god of art, prophecy, and plague.

    — Owl Eyes Reader
  10. Greek women had very few legal rights in Ancient Greece. In any public arena, such as a court, a woman has to be represented by her father, husband, or other male guardian. Women had no rights over their own bodies and were considered the property, or protectorate of the dominant male in their life.

    — Owl Eyes Reader
  11. Euripides uses a rapid meter in these lines to show that Medea is emotional and erratic. The nurse responds to her in the same meter to show that her emotions are also agitated.

    — Owl Eyes Reader
  12. In ancient Greek theater, the actor playing Medea would have been hoisted onto the roof or suspended over the stage using a crane. This same technique was used for actors playing gods in other plays. Medea’s use of the crane symbolizes her goddess-like status. Not only has she defeated Jason and claimed her revenge, she has achieved a divine position by doing so.

    — Owl Eyes Reader
  13. Medea replicates the actions of a suppliant, or someone who makes a plea to someone in power. A suppliant often knelt and took hold of the knees of the person in power to show their lower status.

    — Owl Eyes Reader
  14. Medea is set in Corinth, a major city in Greece during the 5th century. Corinth was located on a narrow strip of land that connected mainland Greece to Sparta. Since Athens in Greece was Sparta’s main military rival, the city of Corinth played a vital role in the movement of armies across Greece.

    — Owl Eyes Reader
  15. Medea's "cunning," nature so frequently alluded to in the play finally manifests here in the biggest moment of deceit in the play. In contrast to her suicidal, destructive thoughts at the beginning of the play, her cold determination in pursuit of her goals admirably harkens back to other, predominantly male Greek heroes.

    — Emily, Owl Eyes Staff
  16. Notice how Aegeus echoes the chorus here. Jason’s actions are “too sore”; they are abhorrent to everyone in the play except for Jason. This suggests that the society supports Medea’s anger and sense of betrayal and that Jason has defied social conduct. The wording here carries significance as well. Aegeus seems to imply that Creon has also committed a wrong that Jason chooses to “suffer.” One may assume that this wrong of Creon’s was his choice to endorse the breaking of oikos and Jason’s choice to forsake his familial ties.

    — Emily, Owl Eyes Staff
  17. Jason reproaches Medea for her openly threatening speech against the rulers of Corinth, most likely because his own self-image is still tied to that of his ex-wife. He attempts to hold himself up as an example to Medea by explaining how he has appealed to Creon and Glauce on her behalf and thrown her at their mercy as she should do herself. The irony here lies in the fact that Jason is solely responsible for Medea’s situation, yet attempts to show sympathy for her plight.

    — Emily, Owl Eyes Staff
  18. Notice that the nurse characterizes Medea’s rage as a “new-born;” Medea’s murderous revenge is a personified separate entity from the sorceress, as if it were her child. The term “new-born” also means new infant. In this way, Medea’s rage supplants her actual children. The nurse predicts that this rage will cause disaster before it disappears and once again foreshadows that the story will have a tragic ending.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  19. Medea laments the sacrifices that she made to secure Jason’s escape from Colchis and acquisition of the Golden Fleece. She remembers the shores of her mother’s home and her brother’s blood, a reference to the story of the Golden Fleece in which Medea kills and dismembers her brother to stop her father’s army from pursuing Jason and the fleeing Argonauts. This lament shows either that Medea regrets her choices and brutal actions, or that she is mortified by her actions because of Jason’s treachery.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  20. The Nurse begins the play situating this play in the Greek mythos. The Argo is the ship from the story of Jason and the Golden Fleece, a well-known myth in Ancient Greece. King Pelias of Iolcus sends Jason and a band of heroes called the Argonauts to retrieve the Golden Fleece from Medea’s father King Aeetes in Colchis. The Argonauts face many challenges on their journey to Colchis including the Symplegades, a pair of rocks that clashed together whenever anyone went through them. Jason’s ability to navigate these challenges proved that he had divine help and that he was a great hero. Establishing this history gives the story an authoritative tone and aligns it with other famous tragedies.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  21. In Greek mythology, Orpheus was a brilliant musician and poet. He was believed to play music so perfect, so melodic, that he could charm both living and inanimate objects. When his love and bride to be Eurydice was bitten by a snake and killed, Orpheus traveled to the underworld to ask Hades and Persephone to return his love to life. He played music so beautiful that Persephone allowed Eurydice to leave the underworld, under the condition that Orpheus would not look at her before they reached the world of the living. He led Eurydice out of the underworld and turned to embrace her as soon as he had crossed the threshold of Hades. Unfortunately, Eurydice had not yet stepped into the light, and she disappeared as soon as he laid eyes on her.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  22. Medea’s final words to Jason blame his hubris for the tragedy that has befallen him. While Jason tries to argue that Medea’s actions are to blame, Medea reinforces the theme that male hubris, or arrogant pride, is what brought about the hero’s downfall.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  23. Notice that Jason believes he is “the dead” as soon as his sons are dead. This line touches on the greek concept and theme kleos in which a father passes his glory, honor, and reputation on to his sons. In killing Jason’s sons and wife, Medea ruins his chances to pass on his name and his memory; in essence, she kills him.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  24. In Greek mythology, Medea is a descendant of Helios, the god of the sun. Helios sends his chariot pulled by dragons to save Medea from Jason’s wrath. A god suddenly and unexpectedly intervening in the action of a play is a literary trope called deus ex machina, or the god in the machine. It generally occurs when it seems that the protagonist has no hope of escape. When Greek tragedies were performed, an actor playing a god would be physically lowered onto the stage by a machine—typically a crane— hence the name of the trope.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  25. The noun “anadem” refers to a wreath that was placed on one’s head, such as a garland, crown of flowers, or chaplet.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  26. Notice that the audience only hears about the deaths of Glauce and her father, it is not portrayed on the stage. This is a literary trope called diegesis, a storytelling tool in which a story is recounted or told through a character rather than shown or enacted. This technique forces the audience to imagine the event in all its terrible detail. The images the audience can create in their heads is far worse than anything the actors could create on stage which involves the audience in the story.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  27. Notice how Medea places her murderous actions onto Jason. Since Jason abandoned his family and broke his vows, he “stole” the future prospects of his children. Medea uses the idea of Jason destroying his own kleos to make the argument that Jason also stole his children’s lives. In ruining their reputations and taking away their inheritance, Jason killed them.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  28. This is one instance in which Euripides suggests that Medea’s vengeance is also a form of excessive pride, or hubris. She decides to punish Jason by killing her children, but in doing so she also causes herself an enormous amount of pain. Here, she decides that the pain she would feel if someone used her children to mock her would be worse than the pain of losing her children. This suggests that like Jason, Medea is full of hubris. Hubris was the downfall of many Greek heroes.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  29. This speech is an example of dramatic irony. The audience has already heard Medea swear that she will have her revenge against Glauce and Jason. The audience knows that these gifts are poisoned even though Jason sees Medea’s actions and words as genuine peace offerings.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  30. By this Medea means that she is full of anger and hatred. She goes on to claim that she will relinquish this hatred and “forgive.” This is an instance of dramatic irony. While outwardly this sounds like a claim that Medea will change, the audience knows that this is in fact a reference to her murderous plot to kill Glauce, Creon, and her children.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  31. In Greek mythology, Erechtheus was the king of Athens and founder of the polis. He was born of the earth. When the god Hephaestus attempted to rape Athena and she rebuffed him, she wiped his semen off her thigh with a bit of wool that she cast to the earth. From this wool, Gaia, goddess of the earth, became pregnant and produced Erechtheus. Athenians saw themselves as the children of Erechtheus, the man reared by their patron Athena.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  32. Medea decides to kill her children so that Jason will have no heirs to his name and legacy. Having killed his wife and slaughtered his children, Medea will leave Jason with nothing. She considers this action the absolute form of revenge for the wrongs Jason has committed against her.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  33. The noun “carcanet” signifies a type of jewelry that adorns one’s head, such as a crown, tiara, or necklace.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  34. In Greek mythology, Maia is the mother of Hermes, the god of transitions, boundaries, and travelers. The chorus references these two figures from mythology to wish Aegeus a safe journey home.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  35. Jason’s actions defy the Greek concept of oikos, or the family unit. He has abandoned his family and therefore dared to do “a thing so shameful.” Aegeus’s tone of disbelief suggests that Jason’s actions are outlandish. Notice how the narrative of the play condemns Jason and his actions as it builds towards Medea’s own shocking sin.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  36. In Greek mythology, Pittheus was the king of Troezen. He was Dia and Pelops’s son and the grandfather of Theseus. He was a renowned intellectual who could interpret the complicated words of oracles. Aegeus seeks him to decipher what the oracle of Delphi told him about his future children.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  37. Delphi was the location of Apollo’s temple and the famous oracle. The “encaverned stair” is likely a reference to the theater at Delphi that lay near the temple. The theater was built into the natural slope of the mountain and had six stair cases that divided the colossal stands built to hold 4,500 spectators.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  38. In Greek mythology, Aegeus is the king of Athens. He and his three brothers divided the government into four parts and gave Aegeus kingly power. He had two wives but could not produce an heir. He traveled to the Oracle at Delphi to for advice and she told him a cryptic prophecy that he needed help deciphering. Medea and Aegeus eventually married when she fled to his kingdom for protection and had a son named Medus.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  39. Notice the irony in Jason’s speech. Jason claims that he will do anything for his children, however, his selfish actions are the cause of their need for support. Jason cannot recognize that his pride, selfishness, and desires are the sole cause of his children's peril. This blindness and inability to recognize his guilt will cause his downfall.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  40. Medea begins to speak to her body parts as if they are not part of herself. In fragmenting her body, she distances herself from that actions that these body parts have taken. This fragmentation will become important as she begins to seek revenge and commit heinous actions.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  41. In mythology, Medea also helps Jason steal the fleece from a giant serpent's protection by charming the serpent.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  42. In the myth of Jason and the Golden Fleece, Medea helps Jason succeed at a humanly impossible task. The challenge was to yoke together two bulls with fire for breath and bronze feet. After yoking the beasts together, Jason would plow a field and plant dragon’s teeth in rows. From the dragon’s teeth would rise as fearsome army of warriors that Jason would have to cut down as they sprouted from the ground. In the story, Medea makes an ointment that makes Jason invincible for a day.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  43. Jason speaks about Medea’s “new state” as if he is not the one who caused her state to change. He casts himself as a benevolent man who selflessly helps her with her plight. However, this offer to help comes across as patronizing, condescending, and belittling: Jason’s blindness to the pain that he has caused will bring about his downfall.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  44. The verb “succor” means to help, assist, or aid a person.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  45. By this, Medea means Cupid, the god of love. In mythology Cupid created havoc among gods and mortals because any being pierced by his arrow mortal or immortal fell into uncontrollable desire. Medea claims love is a curse because it is all consuming, which is ironic because Medea is a character completely consumed by her emotions (in the play her thirst for revenge,) until she is rectified.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  46. Hecate was the goddess of the crossroads, witchcraft, magic, necromancy, and poison. Hecate was associated with torches, keys, serpents and daggers, and thought to live in the underworld. Here, Medea prays to Hecate to help her with her murderous plot to poison Jason, Glauce, and Creon.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  47. In this context, the noun “essay” means attempts, or endeavours. Medea mocks Creon and his sympathy: he had the power to exile her immediately and ruin all of her plans. Instead, he granted her one day to carry out all three murders. This speech shows that Medea was lying in all of her previous speeches and gives the audience a view of her internal thoughts: she seeks total revenge and cares only for the justice she desires.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  48. Medea seems to have a change of heart half-way through this line. At first she pleads not to be exiled, or forced to leave by Creon’s soldiers. Then, after the ellipsis, her tone changes. She becomes ingratiating, using formal language such as “O King.” The careful reader might notice this change and conclude that Medea is plotting something. Creon does not seem to notice the change.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  49. Notice the confidence with which Creon states that Medea’s sorcery will not help her. Creon believes in the power of his position as a king and therefore believes that he has control over Medea’s actions. This hubris however blinds him to the reality of Medea’s power: she is a sorceress who does not need to follow the rules of a mortal man.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  50. It is unclear to the audience whether or not Medea is genuine in this moment. She claims that she only hates Jason for his actions and that she does not blame Creon for the marriage. However, Creon claims that Medea has been making threats against his daughter as well as Jason. If the audience believes Creon, Medea’s lines can be interpreted as overt lies used to trick Creon.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  51. Medea argues that Creon only banishes her because she is wiser than the men in the city and therefore threatening. This claim touches on one of the play’s main themes: male hubris. Medea essentially argues that Creon’s pride in being the most powerful man in Corinth is what drives him to hate her—he fears that she is too clever, too powerful.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  52. It may strike the reader as odd, or even ironic, that Creon expresses these worries after condoning the marriage between Jason and Glauce. If he knew about Medea’s power before the marriage, he must have known that she would seek “doom of vengeance” and might have chosen a different partner for his daughter. This ill-considered decision followed by the belief that he has the power to get rid of this sorceress reveals one of the main themes of the play: male hubris, or dangerous, arrogant pride. Creon believes he has more power than Medea, and it will cause his downfall and doom for his child.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  53. Creon states that he has heard that Medea has made threats against Jason, his new bride Glauce, and her father Creon. Creon fears Medea because he knows that she wields supernatural power.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  54. The leader of the chorus confirms that smiting Jason for his crimes is just. Notice that the chorus, the moral center of the play, condones Medea’s vengeance. Jason betrayed his oaths and the customs of oikos, thus he deserves to be punished.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  55. By this, Medea refers to the ancient Greek custom of dowry. Marriages were generally arranged by a couple’s families. A dowry was the money that the woman’s family would pay to the man’s family to secure the marriage. She remarks on the powerlessness of women to reject a man once her family has arranged marriage. The interesting thing about this speech is that Medea has not suffered any of the conditions that she complains about here. She appeals to her audience of Corinthian women by talking about their issues rather than pleading her own case.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  56. In Greek, “Hellas” means Greek. By this line the chorus means that Medea’s oath to Jason, here called “faith,” caused her to cross dark seas and travel to Greece. The chorus again highlights the difficulty and sacrifice that Medea endured to be with Jason. This in turn underscores the wretchedness of his betrayal and the depth of her despair.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  57. By “god” the chorus refers to Zeus, the king and father of the gods and the god of the sky, rather than the Christian God. Notice how the translator’s monotheistic religious context permeates the language he uses when he translates this text. Similarly, what he names “Faith” is translated in other versions of this text to “Themis,” the goddess of divine order, fairness, or law. Murray uses the word “Faith” to describe “God’s” daughter because these two words fit together in the Christian faith, much like the gods Zeus and Themis would in an ancient Greek context.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  58. The adjective “blithe” means showing a casual or cheerful indifference that seems callous and improper.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  59. The noun “kine” means a herd of cows; “wild kine” is a group of rabid, or wild cows. Within this first section of the play, the images and metaphors used to describe Medea align her with a savage monster or an animal. This suggests that Medea’s rage has turned her into a beast; she has shed her humanity.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  60. The noun “troth” means truth or loyalty that one pledges when they make a vow. The Virgin of Troth is another name for Themis, the goddess of divine order, fairness, and law.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  61. The “Virgin of Righteousness” is Themis, the goddess of divine order, fairness, and law. Themis was thought to enforce human law and custom, especially the keeping of oaths. Medea prays to her because Jason has broken his oath.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  62. Notice that the chorus comforts Medea by claiming that the gods are on her side. They claim that “God seeth” all that she suffers and that Jason’s sins are not on her head. While this moralistic claim suggests that Medea is righteous and that Jason will be punished by the gods, it does not address the problems Medea faces now that she is alone and facing exile. While the chorus offers righteous comfort to her conscious and emotional anguish, they do not offer aid in her social troubles.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  63. The house was a main component of oikos. The family, its house, and all of the relatives, pets, and slaves who lived in the house were under the family’s protection. Here the house is personified as being able to see “grief” and “joy” and create “love” within the chorus leader. The house becomes the central location of the family and a physical embodiment of their bond. There being “no house” means the family itself, and its oikos, has been destroyed.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  64. In Greek tragedies, the chorus was a group of actors who performed their lines together, singing or speaking in unison. The chorus modeled the “perfect spectator” for the play. They interpreted conflicts, characters, and events for the audience to demonstrate how the audience was meant to interpret the themes of the play. They often offered crucial insight into the character’s psyche and served as the moral center, condemning or praising the character’s actions throughout the play.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  65. Medea curses her children from within the house and the nurse questions how these innocent creatures could be connected with their father’s sins. This line touches on the Greek concept of kleos. Kleos is renown or glory that a father can pass on to his sons. The son was responsible for living a life that honored his father’s kleos. This concept aligned one’s father’s actions with one’s own identity. Thus, Jason’s sins reflect onto his children.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  66. Notice that the nurse describes Medea as if she were a beast or threatening monster. She compares Medea to a “sea-spirit,” a “weeping cloud,” with a “frozen heart” and “thunder-fire.” All of these images imply that Medea is a monster that cannot be controlled and will be dangerous.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  67. The first lines the audience hears from Medea are about her shame and her pain. She enters the play as a woman full of suicidal despair and misery.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  68. The nurse once again expresses her concern for Medea’s relationship with her children. She is concerned that Medea is beginning to hate her children because of Jason’s sins. This is a moment of foreshadowing that these children will not “end happily” as the nurse hopes.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  69. This exchange presents Jason’s sins to the audience. Rather than keeping his vows and protecting his children and wife, Jason thought of himself and his own desires. The attendant signals that this selfish sin is widespread in their society. This suggests that Euripides’s play tells a story with a broader moral message: it is a warning to men who might betray their vows and destroy their oikos.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  70. Banishment, or exile, was the most extreme punishment in ancient Greece comparable to a death sentence. Without her place in society as a protected wife and mother, a woman in exile was forced to beg and live as a nomad. Unlike men, women often could not find work or anyone to take them in. King Creon seeks to banish Medea and her children to protect his daughter and her new husband, Jason.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  71. The noun “thrall” means slave or servant. The attendant mocks the nurse asking her why she is talking to herself rather than attending on Medea. The nurse responds that a good servant feels the pain of their master.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  72. Medea’s children are introduced as a symbol of innocence. They do not know their mother’s pain and are innocent of the crimes their father has committed.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  73. The nurse introduces the main conflict of the play. Medea has a “fell spirit” meaning her spirit is terrible, evil, or ferociously deadly. The nurse speculates on whether or not Medea will kill herself or kill Jason and Glauce. Notice that the nurse draws attention to Medea’s children and her changing attitude towards them. The nurse worries what this change will mean for their safety and foreshadows the end of the play.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  74. When Jason and the Argonauts reached Colchis, the goddess Hera asked Aphrodite to make Medea fall in love with Jason so that the powerful sorceress would protect him in his impossible quest. Medea betrayed her family to give him an ointment that would make him invincible during his challenge, and she warned him when her father Aeetes was going to have him killed after he defeated the challenge. She secured the Golden Fleece and helped the Argonauts escape Colchis and Aeetes’s pursuing army by killing and dismembering her own brother so that her father would have to stop the pursuit to collect the pieces of his body. The nurse references this story to remind the audience how much Medea has sacrificed for this man who has betrayed her.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  75. The family was the central unit of Greek society. The concept of oikos, or the importance of the family, is a theme seen in many Greek tragedies and Roman epics. Upholding oikos, remaining loyal to one’s family and performing one’s familial duties, was not only important but socially reinforced. Those who broke oikos were publically shamed or punished, especially women who broke their vows. Jason’s betrayal of Medea would have been seen as a betrayal of oikos and therefore her plans of revenge against him would have been supported by the gods and her society.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  76. Once they arrived in Corinth, Jason forsook his vows to Medea and sought the hand in marriage of Glauce, Creon’s daughter. Jason wanted to marry Glauce to gain power and access to the throne.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  77. After Medea kills King Pelias, Jason is not restored to the throne. Instead, Pelias’s son took the throne and banished Jason and Medea. They fled with their children to Corinth, where Creon the king offered them shelter.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  78. In Greek mythology, Jason returns to Iolcus with the Golden Fleece and the sorceress who helped him obtain it, Aeetes’s daughter Medea. Despite his vow, King Pelias refuses to turn over the crown when Jason completed his mission. Medea then devises a plan to secure the throne for her lover. She tricks King Pelias’s daughters to kill him by telling them that she can restore his youth and strength. She kills a sheep and places it in pieces in a pot, says a spell over the pot, then a young lamb bounces from the pot. King Pelias’s daughters kill their father and cut him up, but when they place him in the pot, Medea does not bring him back to life, restored to youth.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  79. In Greek mythology, King Pelias, Jason’s uncle, usurped Jason’s father and stole the throne of Iolcus. He vowed that if Jason could retrieve the Golden Fleece from Colchis he would return the rightful throne to his nephew. Pelias made this vow because he believed the task would be impossible to complete. When Jason returned with the fleece, the surprised King refused to give up his throne as he had promised.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  80. In Greek mythology, Pelion is a mountain in Thessaly full of trees. The wood of these trees was believed to be the wood the Argonauts used to make their famous ship The Argo to transport them on their mission to Colchis.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff
  81. The Nurse acts as a type of prologue at the beginning of this play by setting up the story and reminding the audience who these characters are. The following speech references the story of Jason and the Golden Fleece and the aftermath of the Argonauts’ quest to remind the audience of the mythological story from which this play draws.

    — Caitlin, Owl Eyes Staff