AFTER HER RETURN to the prison, Hester Prynne was found to be in a state of nervous excitement that demanded constant watchfulness, lest she should perpetrate violence on herself, or do some half-frenzied mischief to the poor babe. As night approached, it proving impossible to quell her insubordination by rebuke or threats of punishment, Master Brackett, the jailer, thought fit to introduce a physician. He described him as a man of skill in all Christian modes of physical science, and likewise familiar with whatever the savage people could teach, in respect to medicinal herbs and roots that grew in the forest. To say the truth, there was much need of professional assistance, not merely for Hester herself, but still more urgently for the child; who, drawing its sustenance from the maternal bosom, seemed to have drank in with it all the turmoil, the anguish, and despair, which pervaded the mother's system. It now writhed in convulsions of pain, and was a forcible type, in its little frame, of the moral agony which Hester Prynne had borne throughout the day.
Closely following the jailer into the dismal apartment, appeared that individual, of singular aspect, whose presence in the crowd had been of such deep interest to the wearer of the scarlet letter. He was lodged in the prison, not as suspected of any offence, but as the most convenient and suitable mode of disposing of him, until the magistrates should have conferred with the Indian sagamores respecting his ransom. His name was announced as Roger Chillingworth. The jailer, after ushering him into the room, remained a moment, marvelling at the comparative quiet that followed his entrance; for Hester Prynne had immediately become as still as death, although the child continued to moan.
“Prithee, friend, leave me alone with my patient,” said the practitioner. “Trust me, good jailer, you shall briefly have peace in your house; and, I promise you, Mistress Prynne shall hereafter be more amenable to just authority than you may have found her heretofore. “
“Nay, if your worship can accomplish that,” answered Master Brackett, “I shall own you for a man of skill indeed! Verily, the woman hath been like a possessed one; and there lacks little, that I should take in hand to drive Satan out of her with stripes. “
The stranger had entered the room with the characteristic quietude of the profession to which he announced himself as belonging. Nor did his demeanour change, when the withdrawal of the prison-keeper left him face to face with the woman, whose absorbed notice of him, in the crowd, had intimated so close a relation between himself and her. His first care was given to the child; whose cries, indeed, as she lay writhing on the trundle-bed, made it of peremptory necessity to postpone all other business to the task of soothing her. He examined the infant carefully, and then proceeded to unclasp a leathern case, which he took from beneath his dress. It appeared to contain medical preparations, one of which he mingled with a cup of water.
“My old studies in alchemy,” observed he, “and my sojourn, for above a year past, among a people well versed in the kindly properties of simples, have made a better physician of me than many that claim the medical degree. Here, woman! The child is yours,—she is none of mine,—neither will she recognise my voice or aspect as a father's. Administer this draught, therefore, with thine own hand.”
Hester repelled the offered medicine, at the same time gazing with strongly marked apprehension into his face.
“Wouldst thou avenge thyself on the innocent babe?” whispered she.
“Foolish woman!” responded the physician, half coldly, half soothingly. “What should ail me to harm this misbegotten and miserable babe? The medicine is potent for good; and were it my child,—yea, mine own, as well as thine!—I could do no better for it.”
As she still hesitated, being, in fact, in no reasonable state of mind, he took the infant in his arms, and himself administered the draught. It soon proved its efficacy, and redeemed the leech's pledge. The moans of the little patient subsided; its convulsive tossings gradually ceased; and in a few moments, as is the custom of young children after relief from pain, it sank into a profound and dewy slumber. The physician, as he had a fair right to be termed, next bestowed his attention on the mother. With calm and intent scrutiny, he felt her pulse, looked into her eyes,—a gaze that made her heart shrink and shudder, because so familiar, and yet so strange and cold,—and, finally, satisfied with his investigation, proceeded to mingle another draught.
“I know not Lethe nor Nepenthe,” remarked he; “but I have learned many new secrets in the wilderness, and here is one of them,—a recipe that an Indian taught me, in requital of some lessons of my own, that were as old as Paracelsus. Drink it! It may be less soothing than a sinless conscience. That I cannot give thee. But it will calm the swell and heaving of thy passion, like oil thrown on the waves of a tempestuous sea.”
He presented the cup to Hester, who received it with a slow, earnest look into his face; not precisely a look of fear, yet full of doubt and questioning, as to what his purposes might be. She looked also at her slumbering child.
“I have thought of death,” said she,—”have wished for it,—would even have prayed for it, were it fit that such as I should pray for any thing. Yet, if death be in this cup, I bid thee think again, ere thou beholdest me quaff it. See! It is even now at my lips.”
“Drink, then,” replied he, still with the same cold composure. “Dost thou know me so little, Hester Prynne? Are my purposes wont to be so shallow? Even if I imagine a scheme of vengeance, what could I do better for my object than to let thee live,—than to give thee medicines against all harm and peril of life,—so that this burning shame may still blaze upon thy bosom?” —As he spoke, he laid his long forefinger on the scarlet letter, which forthwith seemed to scorch into Hester's breast, as if it had been red-hot. He noticed her involuntary gesture, and smiled. —“Live, therefore, and bear about thy doom with thee, in the eyes of men and women,—in the eyes of him whom thou didst call thy husband,—in the eyes of yonder child! And, that thou mayest live, take off this draught.”
Without further expostulation or delay, Hester Prynne drained the cup, and, at the motion of the man of skill, seated herself on the bed where the child was sleeping; while he drew the only chair which the room afforded, and took his own seat beside her. She could not but tremble at these preparations; for she felt that—having now done all that humanity, or principle, or, if so it were, a refined cruelty, impelled him to do, for the relief of physical suffering—he was next to treat with her as the man whom she had most deeply and irreparably injured.
“Hester,” said he, “I ask not wherefore, nor how, thou hast fallen into the pit, or say rather, thou hast ascended to the pedestal of infamy, on which I found thee. The reason is not far to seek. It was my folly, and thy weakness. I,—a man of thought,—the book-worm of great libraries,—a man already in decay, having given my best years to feed the hungry dream of knowledge,—what had I to do with youth and beauty like thine own! Misshapen from my birth-hour, how could I delude myself with the idea that intellectual gifts might veil physical deformity in a young girl's fantasy! Men call me wise. If sages were ever wise in their own behoof, I might have foreseen all this. I might have known that, as I came out of the vast and dismal forest, and entered this settlement of Christian men, the very first object to meet my eyes would be thyself, Hester Prynne, standing up, a statue of ignominy, before the people. Nay, from the moment when we came down the old church-steps together, a married pair, I might have beheld the bale-fire of that scarlet letter blazing at the end of our path!”
“Thou knowest,” said Hester,—for, depressed as she was, she could not endure this last quiet stab at the token of her shame,—“thou knowest that I was frank with thee. I felt no love, nor feigned any.”
“True,” replied he. “It was my folly! I have said it. But, up to that epoch of my life, I had lived in vain. The world had been so cheerless! My heart was a habitation large enough for many guests, but lonely and chill, and without a household fire. I longed to kindle one! It seemed not so wild a dream,—old as I was, and sombre as I was, and misshapen as I was,—that the simple bliss, which is scattered far and wide, for all mankind to gather up, might yet be mine. And so, Hester, I drew thee into my heart, into its innermost chamber, and sought to warm thee by the warmth which thy presence made there!”
“I have greatly wronged thee,” murmured Hester.
“We have wronged each other,” answered he. “Mine was the first wrong, when I betrayed thy budding youth into a false and unnatural relation with my decay. Therefore, as a man who has not thought and philosophised in vain, I seek no vengeance, plot no evil against thee. Between thee and me, the scale hangs fairly balanced. But, Hester, the man lives who has wronged us both! Who is he?”
“Ask me not!” replied Hester Prynne, looking firmly into his face. “That thou shalt never know!”
“Never, sayest thou?” rejoined he, with a smile of dark and self-relying intelligence. “Never know him! Believe me, Hester, there are few things,—whether in the outward world, or, to a certain depth, in the invisible sphere of thought,—few things hidden from the man, who devotes himself earnestly and unreservedly to the solution of a mystery. Thou mayest cover up thy secret from the prying multitude. Thou mayest conceal it, too, from the ministers and magistrates, even as thou didst this day, when they sought to wrench the name out of thy heart, and give thee a partner on thy pedestal. But, as for me, I come to the inquest with other senses than they possess. I shall seek this man, as I have sought truth in books; as I have sought gold in alchemy. There is a sympathy that will make me conscious of him. I shall see him tremble. I shall feel myself shudder, suddenly and unawares. Sooner or later, he must needs be mine!”
The eyes of the wrinkled scholar glowed so intensely upon her, that Hester Prynne clasped her hand over her heart, dreading lest he should read the secret there at once.
“Thou wilt not reveal his name? Not the less he is mine,” resumed he, with a look of confidence, as if destiny were at one with him. “He bears no letter of infamy wrought into his garment, as thou dost; but I shall read it on his heart. Yet fear not for him! Think not that I shall interfere with Heaven's own method of retribution, or, to my own loss, betray him to the gripe of human law. Neither do thou imagine that I shall contrive aught against his life; no, nor against his fame, if, as I judge, he be a man of fair repute. Let him live! Let him hide himself in outward honour, if he may! Not the less he shall be mine!”
“Thy acts are like mercy,” said Hester, bewildered and appalled. “But thy words interpret thee as a terror!”
“One thing, thou that wast my wife, I would enjoin upon thee,” continued the scholar. “Thou hast kept the secret of thy paramour. Keep, likewise, mine! There are none in this land that know me. Breathe not, to any human soul, that thou didst ever call me husband! Here, on this wild outskirt of the earth, I shall pitch my tent; for, elsewhere a wanderer, and isolated from human interests, I find here a woman, a man, a child, amongst whom and myself there exist the closest ligaments. No matter whether of love or hate; no matter whether of right or wrong! Thou and thine, Hester Prynne, belong to me. My home is where thou art, and where he is. But betray me not!”
“Wherefore dost thou desire it?” inquired Hester, shrinking, she hardly knew why, from this secret bond. “Why not announce thyself openly, and cast me off at once?”
“It may be,” he replied, “because I will not encounter the dishonour that besmirches the husband of a faithless woman. It may be for other reasons. Enough, it is my purpose to live and die unknown. Let, therefore, thy husband be to the world as one already dead, and of whom no tidings shall ever come. Recognise me not, by word, by sign, by look! Breathe not the secret, above all, to the man thou wottest of. Shouldst thou fail me in this, beware! His fame, his position, his life, will be in my hands. Beware!”
“I will keep thy secret, as I have his,” said Hester.
“Swear it!” rejoined he.
And she took the oath.
“And now, Mistress Prynne,” said old Roger Chillingworth, as he was hereafter to be named, “I leave thee alone; alone with thy infant, and the scarlet letter! How is it, Hester? Doth thy sentence bind thee to wear the token in thy sleep? Art thou not afraid of nightmares and hideous dreams?”
“Why dost thou smile so at me?” inquired Hester, troubled at the expression of his eyes. “Art thou like the Black Man that haunts the forest round about us? Hast thou enticed me into a bond that will prove the ruin of my soul?”
“Not thy soul,” he answered, with another smile. “No, not thine!”
Chillingworth admits that he was wrong in marrying Hester, who is much younger and of an inferior social class. He brushes off their sins (though perhaps unconvincingly) in favor of seeking revenge against the father of Pearl.— Sarah St. Albin, Owl Eyes Staff
Although Chillingworth is talking about the discrepancies between their physical appearances, this is also a metaphor for conflict between good and evil (Hester a symbol for good and Chillingworth a symbol for evil). Notice how the conflict between these two attributes recur throughout the novel.— Georgia, Owl Eyes Staff
Notice how this man’s name holds suggestive character traits about him. Hawthorne possibly chose the name “Chillingworth” to foreshadow the actions of this haunting character.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Hawthorne draws a direct literal and figurative line between the two characters here. Hester is the talk of the town, and she will be a public figure of shame, whereas Chillingworth will be the devil in plain sight. She is a symbol of repentance and forgiveness, and he is a symbol of the evils of revenge.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
This is another instance where the theme of everything not being what it seems comes into play. Although everything Chillingworth has done up to this moment seems to show him being merciful to Hester, his words about revenge make her fearful that she cannot trust him at all.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Recall earlier in the chapter when Chillingworth gave Hester’s baby the medicine, and thus gained a bit of our trust as readers. Here is where that action pays off. Now, when Chillingworth says that he only seeks revenge against the man Hester had sex with, we are apt to trust him for his word.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
This is the first time it is actually revealed to the audience that Hester and Chillingworth are husband and wife. Hawthorne uses this late revelation to build an atmosphere of suspense.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Recall the opening essay of *The Scarlet Letter*, “The Custom-House,” when the narrator first finds the A and he has a similar experience where it seems to be hot as fire. The A stands for many things during the story including sin, forgiveness, shame, charity, pain, and sacredness. It is the most commonly used symbol in the novel.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
In Greek mythology, Nepenthe is an elixir that uses forgetfulness to numb sorrow. By saying that he doesn’t know Nepenthe, Chillingworth is telling Hester that the sorrow she has caused him cannot be cured by forgetting.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
In Greek mythology, Lethe is one of the rivers in Hades and was known as the river of forgetfulness. Chillingworth probably says this particular river to allude to the fact that although while he was gone, he did not forget about her, and she ended up, in a way, forgetting about him.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Chillingworth is being honest when he offers medicine to the baby, and it actually soothes her from her current ailment. Hawthorne gives Chillingworth opportunity to gain both Hester and the reader’s trust because it is important that Chillingworth isn’t pure evil, so that his actions won’t become predictable.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Remember Chillingworth has studied alchemy, so even though he says he is offering Hester’s child medicine, Hester has great reason to believe that what he is giving her is actually poison. Hester does not know what type of retribution Chillingworth wants yet, and she doesn’t want to put her baby at risk, even though the baby represents a living version of Hester’s scarlet letter.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Master Brackett is saying that if Chillingworth can’t make her “more amenable to just authority,” he would take it upon himself to whip the devil out her. The idea of beating someone to remove the devil from them is an ironic practice. Hawthorne uses this theme of irony (what is good in the eyes of the church versus what seems to be truly good) to make social commentary on religious society.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
This term refers to the man who was second in power to the chief of the Algonquian Native American tribe. This seems to be the “whiteman,” who caught Hester’s eye, and stood next to the “Indian” in the previous chapter.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
This euphemism for the devil was common amongst Puritans in the 17th century. Many believed the Black Man, or Satan, lived in the surrounding forests and held secret meetings with witches at night.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Here, Chillingworth blames himself for Hester's actions of infidelity and adultery. Instead of putting all of the fault on Hester’s shoulders, he shows Hester compassion by saying that it was his fault she was unfaithful because he was not the person she should have married. Hawthorne does this so that the reader sees two sides to Chillingworth: his good and his evil.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Alchemy began as a study of how to transform certain materials into others. The purpose of alchemy was to purify objects, such as metals and potions, and it eventually became known as the precursor to chemistry. It is interesting that a science of potions, closely related to witchcraft, would be studied by a "good" Puritan such as Chillingworth. Hester is right to be worried here because alchemists would have been known to have formulas for brewing dangerous poisons.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
A kind of precursor to the study of medicine, alchemy originated with scientists trying to turn base metals into gold, but eventually led to discoveries of potions that heal containing herbs and rudimentary medicines. Interesting that such a "suspect" science would be studied by a "good" Puritan such as Chillingworth. Hester is right to be worried here, in that many alchemists were also quite adept at brewing a poison or two.— Noelle Thompson
The evil of Hester's estranged husband, Chillingworth is revealed here. Although his words beget no judgement, his actions (and even threats of his actions) prove differently. Any human who declares another to "be mine" has a desire for earthly retribution. Hester declares rightly here when she says, "Thy acts are like mercy, but thy words interpret thee as a terror!"— Noelle Thompson