Part I

This story first appeared in the December edition of Metropolitan Magazine in 1922. It was later collected in the volume All the Sad Young Men in 1926.

SOME OF THE CADDIES were poor as sin and lived in one-room houses with a neurasthenic cow in the front yard, but Dexter Green's father owned the second best grocery-store in Black Bear--the best one was "The Hub," patronized by the wealthy people from Sherry Island--and Dexter caddied only for pocket-money.

In the fall when the days became crisp and gray, and the long Minnesota winter shut down like the white lid of a box, Dexter's skis moved over the snow that hid the fairways of the golf course. At these times the country gave him a feeling of profound melancholy--it offended him that the links should lie in enforced fallowness, haunted by ragged sparrows for the long season. It was dreary, too, that on the tees where the gay colors fluttered in summer there were now only the desolate sand-boxes knee-deep in crusted ice. When he crossed the hills the wind blew cold as misery, and if the sun was out he tramped with his eyes squinted up against the hard dimensionless glare.

In April the winter ceased abruptly. The snow ran down into Black Bear Lake scarcely tarrying for the early golfers to brave the season with red and black balls. Without elation, without an interval of moist glory, the cold was gone.

Dexter knew that there was something dismal about this Northern spring, just as he knew there was something gorgeous about the fall. Fall made him clinch his hands and tremble and repeat idiotic sentences to himself, and make brisk abrupt gestures of command to imaginary audiences and armies. October filled him with hope which November raised to a sort of ecstatic triumph, and in this mood the fleeting brilliant impressions of the summer at Sherry Island were ready grist to his mill. He became a golf champion and defeated Mr. T. A. Hedrick in a marvellous match played a hundred times over the fairways of his imagination, a match each detail of which he changed about untiringly--sometimes he won with almost laughable ease, sometimes he came up magnificently from behind. Again, stepping from a Pierce-Arrow automobile, like Mr. Mortimer Jones, he strolled frigidly into the lounge of the Sherry Island Golf Club-- or perhaps, surrounded by an admiring crowd, he gave an exhibition of fancy diving from the spring-board of the club raft. . . . Among those who watched him in open-mouthed wonder was Mr. Mortimer Jones.

And one day it came to pass that Mr. Jones--himself and not his ghost-- came up to Dexter with tears in his eyes and said that Dexter was the----best caddy in the club, and wouldn't he decide not to quit if Mr. Jones made it worth his while, because every other caddy in the club lost one ball a hole for him-- regularly----

"No, sir," said Dexter decisively, "I don't want to caddy any more." Then, after a pause: "I'm too old."

"You're not more than fourteen. Why the devil did you decide just this morning that you wanted to quit? You promised that next week you'd go over to the State tournament with me."

"I decided I was too old."

Dexter handed in his "A Class" badge, collected what money was due him from the caddy master, and walked home to Black Bear Village.

"The best----caddy I ever saw," shouted Mr. Mortimer Jones over a drink that afternoon. "Never lost a ball! Willing! Intelligent! Quiet! Honest! Grateful!"

The little girl who had done this was eleven--beautifully ugly as little girls are apt to be who are destined after a few years to be inexpressibly lovely and bring no end of misery to a great number of men. The spark, however, was perceptible. There was a general ungodliness in the way her lips twisted ,down at the corners when she smiled, and in the--Heaven help us!--in the almost passionate quality of her eyes. Vitality is born early in such women. It was utterly in evidence now, shining through her thin frame in a sort of glow.

She had come eagerly out on to the course at nine o'clock with a white linen nurse and five small new golf-clubs in a white canvas bag which the nurse was carrying. When Dexter first saw her she was standing by the caddy house, rather ill at ease and trying to conceal the fact by engaging her nurse in an obviously unnatural conversation graced by startling and irrelevant grimaces from herself.

"Well, it's certainly a nice day, Hilda," Dexter heard her say. She drew down the corners of her mouth, smiled, and glanced furtively around, her eyes in transit falling for an instant on Dexter.

Then to the nurse:

"Well, I guess there aren't very many people out here this morning, are there?"

The smile again--radiant, blatantly artificial--convincing.

"I don't know what we're supposed to do now," said the nurse, looking nowhere in particular.

"Oh, that's all right. I'll fix it up.

Dexter stood perfectly still, his mouth slightly ajar. He knew that if he moved forward a step his stare would be in her line of vision--if he moved backward he would lose his full view of her face. For a moment he had not realized how young she was. Now he remembered having seen her several times the year before in bloomers.

Suddenly, involuntarily, he laughed, a short abrupt laugh-- then, startled by himself, he turned and began to walk quickly away.


Dexter stopped.


Beyond question he was addressed. Not only that, but he was treated to that absurd smile, that preposterous smile--the memory of which at least a dozen men were to carry into middle age.

"Boy, do you know where the golf teacher is?"

"He's giving a lesson."

"Well, do you know where the caddy-master is?"

"He isn't here yet this morning."

"Oh." For a moment this baffled her. She stood alternately on her right and left foot.

"We'd like to get a caddy," said the nurse. "Mrs. Mortimer Jones sent us out to play golf, and we don't know how without we get a caddy."

Here she was stopped by an ominous glance from Miss Jones, followed immediately by the smile.

"There aren't any caddies here except me," said Dexter to the nurse, "and I got to stay here in charge until the caddy-master gets here."


Miss Jones and her retinue now withdrew, and at a proper distance from Dexter became involved in a heated conversation, which was concluded by Miss Jones taking one of the clubs and hitting it on the ground with violence. For further emphasis she raised it again and was about to bring it down smartly upon the nurse's bosom, when the nurse seized the club and twisted it from her hands.

"You damn little mean old thing!" cried Miss Jones wildly.

Another argument ensued. Realizing that the elements of the comedy were implied in the scene, Dexter several times began to laugh, but each time restrained the laugh before it reached audibility. He could not resist the monstrous conviction that the little girl was justified in beating the nurse.

The situation was resolved by the fortuitous appearance of the caddymaster, who was appealed to immediately by the nurse.

"Miss Jones is to have a little caddy, and this one says he can't go."

"Mr. McKenna said I was to wait here till you came," said Dexter quickly.

"Well, he's here now." Miss Jones smiled cheerfully at the caddy-master. Then she dropped her bag and set off at a haughty mince toward the first tee.

"Well?" The caddy-master turned to Dexter. "What you standing there like a dummy for? Go pick up the young lady's clubs."

"I don't think I'll go out to-day," said Dexter.

"You don't----"

"I think I'll quit."

The enormity of his decision frightened him. He was a favorite caddy, and the thirty dollars a month he earned through the summer were not to be made elsewhere around the lake. But he had received a strong emotional shock, and his perturbation required a violent and immediate outlet.

It is not so simple as that, either. As so frequently would be the case in the future, Dexter was unconsciously dictated to by his winter dreams.


  1. “Perturbation” refers to the state of being perturbed or troubled by something to the point of agitation. Dexter does not want to take orders from spoiled, snobbish Judy Jones, who is Mortimer Jones’s daughter. The unexpected prospect of acting as her caddy has delivered an “emotional shock” that necessitated “a violent and immediate outlet”—abruptly quitting his job. Dexter has been humiliated by Judy’s attitude and behavior toward him, calling him “boy,” and by the caddy master who calls him a “dummy” in front of her. His pride dictates that he quit on the spot. Adding to his agitation is that he unexpectedly finds Judy very attractive, despite her behavior.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  2. The phrase describes how Judy walks away from the conversation and prepares to begin her golf game; it never occurs to her that Dexter will not caddy for her. “Haughty” means arrogant and contemptuous of others; to “mince” means to walk in short, quick steps in a deliberately dainty manner.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  3. “Fortuitous” means lucky or fortunate in happening by chance.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  4. Characters are developed in a story in several ways, including what the character says and does. When Judy is prevented from playing golf, her outrageous behavior indicates that she is not used to being told no and not getting what she wants.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  5. A “retinue” is a group of escorts, assistants, or advisers who accompany an important person. The word is used humorously here since Judy Jones’s “retinue” is her nurse, carrying her golf clubs.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  6. The adjective “ominous” means foreshadowing evil or harm. Judy Jones’s “ominous” glance is directed at her nurse for revealing to Dexter that she does not know how to play golf.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  7. Bloomers were short, blousy pants often gathered at the knee, a popular style for children in the early 1900s.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  8. “Blatantly” means in a way that is completely obvious and unashamed. Judy’s smile is not sincere, but she doesn’t care that it’s artificial. Her smile’s being nevertheless “convincing” suggests that Judy is practiced at displaying emotions that aren’t genuine.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  9. Judy’s “nurse” is a nanny employed by Judy’s parents to look after her. White is the first of several color motifs in the story. In the social context of the story, white suggests being wealthy and living above the “soiled” lower classes.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  10. The repetition of the consonant “d” sound in the words “devil,” “did,” and “decide” is an example of alliteration. The alliteration of the hard “d” sound emphasizes the emotional intensity of Mr. Jones’s shock. Notably, Mr. Jones is most upset because Dexter will not be available to provide him with a personal service.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  11. Dexter’s boyhood fantasies reflect his desire to inhabit the wealthy upper-class society of the Sherry Island Golf Club where he caddies each summer, a society that seems glamorous to him. He dreams of impressing the members of the club by demonstrating amazing talents and winning their acceptance and admiration. Dexter’s fantasy of strolling “frigidly” into the club’s lounge suggests his desire to feel utterly self-confident and superior to those he now envies. Dexter’s boyhood fantasies relate to a central theme in the text regarding class mobility in American society.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  12. Through a direct and an indirect or implied metaphor, Fitzgerald describes Dexter’s memories or “brilliant impressions” of summer at Sherry Island and his active imagination. His memories were “grist,” a direct metaphor saying they were grain that’s ground into flour; his “mill” is an indirect or implied metaphor describing his imagination in processing the memories.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  13. Fitzgerald uses a simile to describe the coldness of the winter wind. The physical experience of feeling a cold winter wind is compared with the word “as” to the psychological experience of feeling misery. The simile effectively captures Dexter’s intense dissatisfaction with winter, while further developing the imagery of the scene.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  14. “Fallowness” refers to land that is dormant and characterized by inactivity.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  15. “Links” is another name for a golf course.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  16. “Melancholy” is a feeling of sadness, especially while in a pensive or reflective mood. The passage indicates that Dexter is emotionally responsive to the seasons and his surroundings.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  17. The phrase “Dexter's skis moved over the snow” features alliteration, the repetition of a consonant sound in words in close proximity in the text. The “s” sound in “Dexter's skis” alliterates with the “s” sound in “snow,” creating sibilance, a hissing sound. The sibilance in the passage evokes the sound of Dexter’s skis moving over the snow.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  18. In describing the Minnesota winter, Fitzgerald employs a simile, a literary device that describes one thing by comparing it to another with the use of “like” or “as.” The coming of winter is described by comparing it to closing the lid of a box, suggesting being imprisoned by the winter. Within the simile is an indirect or implied metaphor, a literary device that indirectly describes one thing by implying it is something else. The “white lid” of the box indirectly describes the snow of the long winter.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  19. The difference between social classes is introduced early in the story and functions as a motif—a recurring idea, phrase, or image—throughout the narrative. A motif usually contributes in some way to a theme or themes in a short story or novel. Dexter’s family is neither poor nor wealthy, but his father’s store being “second best” implies inferiority to the upper class who live on Sherry Island.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  20. As the word is used here, “neurasthenic” means weak and tired, suggesting that the cow is not well fed or healthy.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  21. Caddies assist golfers as they play the course, usually by carrying the bag that holds their clubs and handing over the particular clubs they call for during a game.

    — Owl Eyes Editors
  22. What does this abrupt decision say about Dexter?

    — Paul Moser