Part IV - Chapter IX
ONE OF THESE grand assemblies was held in my time, about three months before my departure, whither my master went as the representative of our district. In this council was resumed their old debate, and, indeed, the only debate that ever happened in that country; whereof my master, after his return, give me a very particular account.
The question to be debated was whether the Yahoos should be exterminated from the face of the earth. One of the members for the affirmative offered several arguments of great strength and weight; alleging that as the Yahoos were the most filthy, noisome, and deformed animal which Nature ever produced, so they were the most restive and indocible, mischievous and malicious; they would privately suck the teats of the Houyhnhnms’ cows, kill and devour their cats, trample down their oats and grass, if they were not continually watched, and commit a thousand other extravagances. He took notice of a general tradition that Yahoos had not been always in that country; but that many ages ago two of these brutes appeared together upon a mountain; whether produced by the heat of the sun upon corrupted mud and slime, or from the ooze and froth of the sea, was never known. That these Yahoos engendered, and their brood in a short time grew so numerous as to overrun and infest the whole nation. That the Houyhnhnms, to get rid of this evil, made a general hunting, and at last inclosed the whole herd; and, destroying the elder, every Houyhnhnm kept two young ones in a kennel, and brought them to such a degree of tameness as an animal, so savage by nature, can be capable of acquiring, using them for draught and carriage. That there seemed to be much truth in this tradition, and that those creatures could not be Ylnhniamshy (or aborigines of the land) because of the violent hatred the Houyhnhnms, as well as all other animals, bore them; which, although their evil disposition sufficiently deserved, could never have arrived at so high a degree if they had been aborigines, or else they would have long since been rooted out. That the inhabitants, taking a fancy to use the service of the Yahoos, had very imprudently neglected to cultivate the breed of asses, which were a comely animal, easily kept, more tame and orderly, without any offensive smell, strong enough for labor, although they yield to the other in agility of body; and, if their braying be no agreeable sound, it is far preferable to the horrible howlings of the Yahoos.
Several others declared their sentiments to the same purpose, when my master proposed an expedient to the assembly, whereof he had, indeed, borrowed the hint from me. He approved of the tradition mentioned by the honorable member who spoke before, and affirmed that the two Yahoos, said to be the first seen among them, had been driven thither over the sea; that coming to land, and being forsaken by their companions, they retired to the mountains, and, degenerating by degrees, became in the process of time much more savage than those of their own species in the country from whence these two originals came. The reason of this assertion was that he had now in his possession a certain wonderful Yahoo (meaning myself) which most of them had heard of and many of them had seen. He then related to them how he first found me; that my body was all covered with an artificial composure of the skins and hairs of other animals, that I spoke in a language of my own, and had thoroughly learned theirs; that I had related to him the accidents which brought me thither; that, when he saw me without my covering, I was an exact Yahoo in every part, only of a whiter color, less hairy, and with shorter claws. He added how I had endeavored to persuade him that in my own and other countries the Yahoos acted as the governing, rational animal, and held the Houyhnhnms in servitude; that he observed in me all the qualities of a Yahoo, only a little more civilized by some tincture of reason; which, however, was in a degree as far inferior to the Houyhnhnm race as the Yahoos of their country were to me; that among other things I mentioned a custom we had of castrating Houyhnhnms when they were young in order to render them tame; that the operation was easy and safe; that it was no shame to learn wisdom from brutes as industry is taught by the ant, and building by the swallow (for so I translate the word lyhannh, although it be a much larger fowl); that this invention might be practised upon the younger Yahoos here, which besides rendering them tractable and fitter for use, would in an age put an end to the whole species without destroying life; that in the mean time the Houyhnhnms should be exhorted to cultivate the breed of asses which, as they are in all respects more valuable brutes, so they have this advantage, to be fit for service at five years old which the others are not till twelve.”
This was all my master thought fit to tell me at that time of what passed in the Grand Council. But he was pleased to conceal one particular, which related personally to myself, whereof I soon felt the unhappy effect, as the reader will know in its proper place, and from whence I date all the succeeding misfortunes of my life.
The Houyhnhnms have no letters, and consequently their knowledge is all traditional. But, there happening few events of any moment among a people so well united, naturally disposed to every virtue, wholly governed by reason and cut off from all commerce with other nations, the historical part is easily preserved without burthening their memories. I have already observed that they are subject to no diseases, and therefore can have no need of physicians. However, they have excellent medicines composed of herbs, to cure accidental bruises and cuts in the pastern, or frog of the foot by sharp stones, as well as other maims and hurts in the several parts of the body.
They calculate the year by the revolution of the sun and the moon, but use no subdivisions into weeks. They are well enough acquainted with the motions of those two luminaries, and understand the nature of eclipses; and this is the utmost progress of their astronomy.
In poetry they must be allowed to excel all other mortals; wherein the justness of their similes and the minuteness as well as exactness of their descriptions are, indeed, inimitable. Their verses abound very much in both of these, and usually contain either some exalted notions of friendship and benevolence or the praises of those who were victors in races and other bodily exercises. Their buildings, although very rude and simple, are not inconvenient, but well contrived to defend them from all injuries of cold and heat. They have a kind of tree which, at forty years old, loosens in the root and falls with the first storm; it grows very straight, and, being pointed like stakes, with a sharp stone (for the Houyhnhnms know not the use of iron) they stick them erect in the ground about ten inches asunder, and then weave in oat-straw, or sometimes wattles, betwixt them. The roof is made after the same manner, and so are the doors.
The Houyhnhnms use the hollow part, between the pastern and the hoof, of their fore-feet as we do our hands, and this with greater dexterity than I could at first imagine. I have seen a white mare of our family thread a needle (which I lent her on purpose) with that joint. They milk their cows, reap their oats, and do all the work which requires hands in the same manner. They have a kind of hard flints, which, by grinding against other stones, they form into instruments that serve instead of wedges, axes, and hammers. With tools made of these flints they likewise cut their hay and reap their oats, which there grow naturally in several fields; the Yahoos draw home the sheaves in carriages, and the servants tread them in certain covered huts, to get out the grain, which is kept in stores. They make a rude kind of earthen and wooden vessels, and bake the former in the sun.
If they can avoid casualties, they die only of old age, and are buried in the obscurest places that can be found, their friends and relations expressing neither joy nor grief at their departure; nor does the dying person discover the least regret that he is leaving the world, any more than if he were returning home from a visit to one of his neighbors. I remember, my master having once made an appointment with a friend and his family to come to his house upon some affair of importance, on the day fixed the mistress and her two children came very late; she made two excuses, first for her husband, who, as she said, happened that very morning to lhnuwnh. The word is strongly expressive in their language, but not easily rendered into English; it signifies to retire to his first mother. Her excuse for not coming sooner was that, her husband dying late in the morning, she was a good while consulting her servants about a convenient place where his body should be laid; and, I observed, she behaved herself at our house as cheerfully as the rest. She died about three months after.
They live generally to seventy or seventy-five years, very seldom to fourscore: some weeks before their death they feel a gradual decay, but without pain. During this time they are much visited by their friends, because they cannot go abroad with their usual ease and satisfaction. However, about ten days before their death, which they seldom fail in computing, they return the visits that have been made them by those who are nearest in the neighborhood, being carried in a convenient sledge drawn by Yahoos; which vehicle they use not only upon this occasion, but, when they grow old, upon long journeys, or when they are lamed by any accident. And, therefore, when the dying Houyhnhnms return those visits, they take a solemn leave of their friends, as if they were going to some remote part of the country, where they designed to pass the rest of their lives.
I know not whether it may be worth observing that the Houyhnhnms have no word in their language to express anything that is evil, except what they borrow from the deformities or ill qualities of the Yahoos. Thus they denote the folly of a servant, an omission of a child, a stone that cuts their feet, a continuance of foul or unseasonable weather, and the like, by adding to each the epithet of Yahoo. For instance, Hhnm Yahoo, Whnaholm Yahoo, Ynlhmndwihlma Yahoo, and an ill-contrived house, Ynholmhnmrohlnw Yahoo.
I could with great pleasure enlarge further upon the manners and virtues of this excellent people; but, intending in a short time to publish a volume by itself expressly upon that subject, I refer the reader thither, and in the mean time proceed to relate my own sad catastrophe.
A grand debate at the general assembly of the Houyhnhnms, and how it was determined. The learning of the Houyhnhnms. Their buildings. Their manner of burials. The defectiveness of their language.
— Kayla, Owl Eyes Staff
There are a few ways that we can read the Houyhnhnm perspective on death and dying. On the one hand, readers might see an advantage to not feel attached to life, as it means that there is no grief at the loss of loved ones. On the other hand, it signals a kind of emotional indifference that might make the Houyhnhnms seem numb and cold in comparison to humans. Swift supports the theme that what may be “utopian” to some people is actually not all that desirable for others: it is all a matter of perspective.
— Kayla, Owl Eyes Staff
Compare the Houyhnhnm’s study of the arts and astronomy to that of the Laputans. The Houyhnhnms use their knowledge effectively, helping to make life easier and more fulfilling for the people in their community. This suggests that the expansion of knowledge is not inherently bad, but that it must be used for good, or it is meaningless.
— Kayla, Owl Eyes Staff
The Houyhnhnms see the yahoos as a group that needs to be controlled for the peace and safety of the community. The Houyhnhnm leader thus suggests to castrate all yahoos, just like Gulliver explained that they do to horses in England. By turning this around, Swift leads the reader to question if any being should be treated this way, even one that may exemplify the worst aspects of human nature. This supports the theme that using physical power to control one’s society is unethical.