Odysseus leaves Scheria and returns to Ithaca.
THUS DID HE speak, and they all held their peace throughout the covered cloister, enthralled by the charm of his story, till presently Alcinous began to speak.
“Odysseus,” said he, “now that you have reached my house I doubt not you will get home without further misadventure no matter how much you have suffered in the past. To you others, however, who come here night after night to drink my choicest wine and listen to my bard, I would insist as follows. Our guest has already packed up the clothes, wrought gold, and other valuables which you have brought for his acceptance; let us now, therefore, present him further, each one of us, with a large tripod and a cauldron. We will recoup ourselves by the levy of a general rate; for private individuals cannot be expected to bear the burden of such a handsome present.”
Everyone approved of this, and then they went home to bed each in his own abode. When the child of morning, rosy-fingered Dawn, appeared they hurried down to the ship and brought their cauldrons with them. Alcinous went on board and saw everything so securely stowed under the ship's benches that nothing could break adrift and injure the rowers. Then they went to the house of Alcinous to get dinner, and he sacrificed a bull for them in honor of Zeus who is the lord of all. They set the steaks to grill and made an excellent dinner, after which the inspired bard, Demodocus, who was a favorite with everyone, sang to them; but Odysseus kept on turning his eyes towards the sun, as though to hasten his setting, for he was longing to be on his way. As one who has been all day ploughing a fallow field with a couple of oxen keeps thinking about his supper and is glad when night comes that he may go and get it, for it is all his legs can do to carry him, even so did Odysseus rejoice when the sun went down, and he at once said to the Phaeacians, addressing himself more particularly to King Alcinous:
“Sir, and all of you, farewell. Make your drink-offerings and send me on my way rejoicing, for you have fulfilled my heart's desire by giving me an escort, and making me presents, which heaven grant that I may turn to good account; may I find my admirable wife living in peace among friends, and may you whom I leave behind me give satisfaction to your wives and children; may heaven vouchsafe you every good grace, and may no evil thing come among your people.”
Thus did he speak. His hearers all of them approved his saying and agreed that he should have his escort inasmuch as he had spoken reasonably. Alcinous therefore said to his servant, “Pontonous, mix some wine and hand it round to everybody, that we may offer a prayer to father Zeus, and speed our guest upon his way.”
Pontonous mixed the wine and handed it to everyone in turn; the others each from his own seat made a drink-offering to the blessed gods that live in heaven, but Odysseus rose and placed the double cup in the hands of queen Arete.
“Farewell, queen,” said he, “henceforward and for ever, till age and death, the common lot of mankind, lay their hands upon you. I now take my leave; be happy in this house with your children, your people, and with king Alcinous.”
As he spoke he crossed the threshold, and Alcinous sent a man to conduct him to his ship and to the sea shore. Arete also sent some maidservants with him—one with a clean shirt and cloak, another to carry his strong box, and a third with corn and wine. When they got to the waterside the crew took these things and put them on board, with all the meat and drink; but for Odysseus they spread a rug and a linen sheet on deck that he might sleep soundly in the stern of the ship. Then he too went on board and lay down without a word, but the crew took every man his place and loosed the hawser from the pierced stone to which it had been bound. Thereon, when they began rowing out to sea, Odysseus fell into a deep, sweet, and almost deathlike slumber.
The ship bounded forward on her way as a four in hand chariot flies over the course when the horses feel the whip. Her prow curvetted as it were the neck of a stallion, and a great wave of dark blue water seethed in her wake. She held steadily on her course, and even a falcon, swiftest of all birds, could not have kept pace with her. Thus, then, she cut her way through the water, carrying one who was as cunning as the gods, but who was now sleeping peacefully, forgetful of all that he had suffered both on the field of battle and by the waves of the weary sea.
When the bright star that heralds the approach of dawn began to show, the ship drew near to land. Now there is in Ithaca a haven of the old merman Phorcys, which lies between two points that break the line of the sea and shut the harbor in. These shelter it from the storms of wind and sea that rage outside, so that, when once within it, a ship may lie without being even moored. At the head of this harbor there is a large olive tree, and at no great distance a fine overarching cavern sacred to the nymphs who are called Naiads. There are mixing bowls within it and wine-jars of stone, and the bees hive there. Moreover, there are great looms of stone on which the nymphs weave their robes of sea purple—very curious to see—and at all times there is water within it. It has two entrances, one facing North by which mortals can go down into the cave, while the other comes from the South and is more mysterious; mortals cannot possibly get in by it, it is the way taken by the gods.
Into this harbor, then, they took their ship, for they knew the place. She had so much way upon her that she ran half her own length on to the shore; when, however, they had landed, the first thing they did was to lift Odysseus with his rug and linen sheet out of the ship, and lay him down upon the sand still fast asleep. Then they took out the presents which Athena had persuaded the Phaeacians to give him when he was setting out on his voyage homewards. They put these all together by the root of the olive tree, away from the road, for fear some passer by might come and steal them before Odysseus awoke; and then they made the best of their way home again.
But Poseidon did not forget the threats with which he had already threatened Odysseus, so he took counsel with Zeus. “Father Zeus,” said he, “I shall no longer be held in any sort of respect among you gods, if mortals like the Phaeacians, who are my own flesh and blood, show such small regard for me. I said I would let Odysseus get home when he had suffered sufficiently. I did not say that he should never get home at all, for I knew you had already nodded your head about it, and promised that he should do so; but now they have brought him in a ship fast asleep and have landed him in Ithaca after loading him with more magnificent presents of bronze, gold, and raiment than he would ever have brought back from Troy, if he had had his share of the spoil and got home without misadventure.”
And Zeus answered, “What, O Lord of the Earthquake, are you talking about? The gods are by no means wanting in respect for you. It would be monstrous were they to insult one so old and honored as you are. As regards mortals, however, if any of them is indulging in insolence and treating you disrespectfully, it will always rest with yourself to deal with him as you may think proper, so do just as you please.”
“I should have done so at once,” replied Poseidon, “if I were not anxious to avoid anything that might displease you; now, therefore, I should like to wreck the Phaeacian ship as it is returning from its escort. This will stop them from escorting people in future; and I should also like to bury their city under a huge mountain.”
“My good friend,” answered Zeus, “I should recommend you at the very moment when the people from the city are watching the ship on her way, to turn it into a rock near the land and looking like a ship. This will astonish everybody, and you can then bury their city under the mountain.”
When earth-encircling Poseidon heard this he went to Scheria where the Phaeacians live, and stayed there till the ship, which was making rapid way, had got close in. Then he went up to it, turned it into stone, and drove it down with the flat of his hand so as to root it in the ground. After this he went away.
The Phaeacians then began talking among themselves, and one would turn towards his neighbor, saying, “Bless my heart, who is it that can have rooted the ship in the sea just as she was getting into port? We could see the whole of her only a moment ago.”
This was how they talked, but they knew nothing about it; and Alcinous said, “I remember now the old prophecy of my father. He said that Poseidon would be angry with us for taking everyone so safely over the sea, and would one day wreck a Phaeacian ship as it was returning from an escort, and bury our city under a high mountain. This was what my old father used to say, and now it is all coming true. Now therefore let us all do as I say; in the first place we must leave off giving people escorts when they come here, and in the next let us sacrifice twelve picked bulls to Poseidon that he may have mercy upon us, and not bury our city under the high mountain.” When the people heard this they were afraid and got ready the bulls.
Thus did the chiefs and rulers of the Phaeacians pray to king Poseidon, standing round his altar; and at the same time Odysseus woke up once more upon his own soil. He had been so long away that he did not know it again; moreover, Zeus' daughter Athena had made it a foggy day, so that people might not know of his having come, and that she might tell him everything without either his wife or his fellow citizens and friends recognising him until he had taken his revenge upon the wicked suitors. Everything, therefore, seemed quite different to him—the long straight tracks, the harbors, the precipices, and the goodly trees, appeared all changed as he started up and looked upon his native land. So he smote his thighs with the flat of his hands and cried aloud despairingly.
“Alas,” he exclaimed, “among what manner of people am I fallen? Are they savage and uncivilized or hospitable and humane? Where shall I put all this treasure, and which way shall I go? I wish I had staid over there with the Phaeacians; or I could have gone to some other great chief who would have been good to me and given me an escort. As it is I do not know where to put my treasure, and I cannot leave it here for fear somebody else should get hold of it. In good truth the chiefs and rulers of the Phaeacians have not been dealing fairly by me, and have left me in the wrong country; they said they would take me back to Ithaca and they have not done so: may Zeus the protector of suppliants chastise them, for he watches over everybody and punishes those who do wrong. Still, I suppose I must count my goods and see if the crew have gone off with any of them.”
He counted his goodly coppers and cauldrons, his gold and all his clothes, but there was nothing missing; still he kept grieving about not being in his own country, and wandered up and down by the shore of the sounding sea bewailing his hard fate. Then Athena came up to him disguised as a young shepherd of delicate and princely mien, with a good cloak folded double about her shoulders; she had sandals on her comely feet and held a javelin in her hand. Odysseus was glad when he saw her, and went straight up to her.
“My friend,” said he, “you are the first person whom I have met with in this country; I salute you, therefore, and beg you to be well disposed towards me. Protect these my goods, and myself too, for I embrace your knees and pray to you as though you were a god. Tell me, then, and tell me truly, what land and country is this? Who are its inhabitants? Am I on an island, or is this the sea board of some continent?”
Athena answered, “Stranger, you must be very simple, or must have come from somewhere a long way off, not to know what country this is. It is a very celebrated place, and everybody knows it East and West. It is rugged and not a good driving country, but it is by no means a bad island for what there is of it. It grows any quantity of corn and also wine, for it is watered both by rain and dew; it breeds cattle also and goats; all kinds of timber grow here, and there are watering places where the water never runs dry; so, sir, the name of Ithaca is known even as far as Troy, which I understand to be a long way off from this Achaean country.”
Odysseus was glad at finding himself, as Athena told him, in his own country, and he began to answer, but he did not speak the truth, and made up a lying story in the instinctive wiliness of his heart.
“I heard of Ithaca,” said he, “when I was in Crete beyond the seas, and now it seems I have reached it with all these treasures. I have left as much more behind me for my children, but am flying because I killed Orsilochus son of Idomeneus, the fleetest runner in Crete. I killed him because he wanted to rob me of the spoils I had got from Troy with so much trouble and danger both on the field of battle and by the waves of the weary sea; he said I had not served his father loyally at Troy as vassal, but had set myself up as an independent ruler, so I lay in wait for him with one of my followers by the road side, and speared him as he was coming into town from the country. It was a very dark night and nobody saw us; it was not known, therefore, that I had killed him, but as soon as I had done so I went to a ship and besought the owners, who were Phoenicians, to take me on board and set me in Pylos or in Elis where the Epeans rule, giving them as much spoil as satisfied them. They meant no guile, but the wind drove them off their course, and we sailed on till we came hither by night. It was all we could do to get inside the harbor, and none of us said a word about supper though we wanted it badly, but we all went on shore and lay down just as we were. I was very tired and fell asleep directly, so they took my goods out of the ship, and placed them beside me where I was lying upon the sand. Then they sailed away to Sidonia, and I was left here in great distress of mind.”
Such was his story, but Athena smiled and caressed him with her hand. Then she took the form of a woman, fair, stately, and wise, “He must be indeed a shifty lying fellow,” said she, “who could surpass you in all manner of craft even though you had a god for your antagonist. Dare devil that you are, full of guile, unwearying in deceit, can you not drop your tricks and your instinctive falsehood, even now that you are in your own country again? We will say no more, however, about this, for we can both of us deceive upon occasion—you are the most accomplished counsellor and orator among all mankind, while I for diplomacy and subtlety have no equal among the gods. Did you not know Zeus' daughter Athena—me, who have been ever with you, who kept watch over you in all your troubles, and who made the Phaeacians take so great a liking to you? And now, again, I am come here to talk things over with you, and help you to hide the treasure I made the Phaeacians give you; I want to tell you about the troubles that await you in your own house; you have got to face them, but tell no one, neither man nor woman, that you have come home again. Bear everything, and put up with every man's insolence, without a word.”
And Odysseus answered, “A man, goddess, may know a great deal, but you are so constantly changing your appearance that when he meets you it is a hard matter for him to know whether it is you or not. This much, however, I know exceedingly well; you were very kind to me as long as we Achaeans were fighting before Troy, but from the day on which we went on board ship after having sacked the city of Priam, and heaven dispersed us—from that day, Athena, I saw no more of you, and cannot ever remember your coming to my ship to help me in a difficulty; I had to wander on sick and sorry till the gods delivered me from evil and I reached the city of the Phaeacians, where you encouraged me and took me into the town. And now, I beseech you in your father's name, tell me the truth, for I do not believe I am really back in Ithaca. I am in some other country and you are mocking me and deceiving me in all you have been saying. Tell me then truly, have I really got back to my own country?”
“You are always taking something of that sort in your head,” replied Athena, “and that is why I cannot desert you in your afflictions; you are so plausible, shrewd and shifty. Anyone but yourself on returning from so long a voyage would at once have gone home to see his wife and children, but you do not seem to care about asking after them or hearing any news about them till you have exploited your wife, who remains at home vainly grieving for you, and having no peace night or day for the tears she sheds on your behalf. As for my not coming near you, I was never uneasy about you, for I was certain you would get back safely though you would lose all your men, and I did not wish to quarrel with my uncle Poseidon, who never forgave you for having blinded his son. I will now, however, point out to you the lie of the land, and you will then perhaps believe me. This is the haven of the old merman Phorcys, and here is the olive tree that grows at the head of it; near it is the cave sacred to the Naiads; here too is the overarching cavern in which you have offered many an acceptable hecatomb to the nymphs, and this is the wooded mountain Neritum.”
As she spoke the goddess dispersed the mist and the land appeared. Then Odysseus rejoiced at finding himself again in his own land, and kissed the bounteous soil; he lifted up his hands and prayed to the nymphs, saying, “Naiad nymphs, daughters of Zeus, I made sure that I was never again to see you, now therefore I greet you with all loving salutations, and I will bring you offerings as in the old days, if Zeus' redoubtable daughter will grant me life, and bring my son to manhood.”
“Take heart, and do not trouble yourself about that,” rejoined Athena, “let us rather set about stowing your things at once in the cave, where they will be quite safe. Let us see how we can best manage it all.”
Therewith she went down into the cave to look for the safest hiding places, while Odysseus brought up all the treasure of gold, bronze, and good clothing which the Phaeacians had given him. They stowed everything carefully away, and Athena set a stone against the door of the cave. Then the two sat down by the root of the great olive, and consulted how to carry out the destruction of the wicked suitors.
“Odysseus,” said Athena, “noble son of Laertes, think how you can lay hands on these disreputable people who have been lording it in your house these three years, courting your wife and making wedding presents to her, while she does nothing but lament your absence, giving hope and sending encouraging messages to everyone of them, but meaning the very opposite of all she says.”
And Odysseus answered, “In good truth, goddess, it seems I should have come to much the same bad end in my own house as Agamemnon did, if you had not given me such timely information. Advise me how I shall best avenge myself. Stand by my side and put your courage into my heart as on the day when we loosed Troy's fair diadem from her brow. Help me now as you did then, and I will fight three hundred men, if you, goddess, will be with me.”
“Trust me for that,” said she, “I will not lose sight of you when once we set about it, and I imagine that some of those who are devouring your substance will then bespatter the pavement with their blood and brains. I will begin by disguising you so that no human being shall know you; I will cover your body with wrinkles; you shall lose all your yellow hair; I will clothe you in a garment that shall fill all who see it with loathing; I will blear your fine eyes for you, and make you an unseemly object in the sight of the suitors, of your wife, and of the son whom you left behind you. Then go at once to the swineherd who is in charge of your pigs; he has been always well affected towards you, and is devoted to Penelope and your son; you will find him feeding his pigs near the rock that is called Raven by the fountain Arethusa, where they are fattening on beechmast and spring water after their manner. Stay with him and find out how things are going, while I proceed to Sparta and see your son, who is with Menelaus at Lacedaemon, where he has gone to try and find out whether you are still alive.”
“But why,” said Odysseus, “did you not tell him, for you knew all about it? Did you want him too to go sailing about amid all kinds of hardship while others are eating up his estate?”
Athena answered, “Never mind about him, I sent him that he might be well spoken of for having gone. He is in no sort of difficulty, but is staying quite comfortably with Menelaus, and is surrounded with abundance of every kind. The suitors have put out to sea and are lying in wait for him, for they mean to kill him before he can get home. I do not much think they will succeed, but rather that some of those who are now eating up your estate will first find a grave themselves.”
As she spoke Athena touched him with her wand and covered him with wrinkles, took away all his yellow hair, and withered the flesh over his whole body; she bleared his eyes, which were naturally very fine ones; she changed his clothes and threw an old rag of a wrap about him, and a tunic, tattered, filthy, and begrimed with smoke; she also gave him an undressed deer skin as an outer garment, and furnished him with a staff and a wallet all in holes, with a twisted thong for him to sling it over his shoulder.
When the pair had thus laid their plans they parted, and the goddess went straight to Lacedaemon to fetch Telemachus.
The mist symbolizes the difficulties the gods give Odysseus during his voyage home. By dispersing the mist and showing Odysseus that he is in his home country, Athena shows readers how the gods help mortals. This dichotomy is a recurring theme in the story that can be read as a cultural reflection of the time *The Odyssey* was written: Although people believed the gods oftentimes helped people, they also believed gods caused them great harm.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
In Greek mythology, Arethusa is a nymph who fled her home in Arcadia when Alpheus, the river god, fell in love with her. Arethusa prayed to Artemis, her friend, who helped Arethusa flee Alpheus by transforming her into a freshwater spring on the island of Ortygia in Syracuse.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
A diadem is a headband or crown decorated in jewels worn as a symbol of sovereignty and power. In this instance, Odysseus is using the word figuratively to represent his victory in Troy that extinguished its power.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Athena’s fog would make it difficult for Odysseus to tell, at first, where he lands. However, Odysseus’s confusion and despair is more likely to be a reminder to the reader of how he has been gone for twenty years. In this time, he has lost some familiarity with his homeland.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Earlier in the story when Poseidon punishes Odysseus with a great sea storm, he is careful not to kill him because he doesn’t want to disrespect Zeus’s desire for Odysseus to return to Ithaca. Even though Poseidon is careful to respect his brother, he is jealous of Zeus’s absolute power.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Naiads are water nymphs who are found beside wells, springs, fountains, streams, and other freshwater sources. Homer’s inclusion of these freshwater gods could be a metaphor for the end of Odysseus's sea journey and a transition to his continued journey on land.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Again Homer uses the olive tree as a symbol of hope and salvation. Since the tree is at the head of the harbor, as readers we know that this is a place of salvation for Odysseus, even though it does not occur to him right away.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
A common theme in *The Odyssey* is the recurring contrast between humans and gods. By mentioning “age and death” as the “common lot of mankind,” Homer emphasizes the mortality of humans. For Odysseus to say this is ironic because even though he doesn’t have god-like power, with the help of the gods he has been somewhat of an immortal.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
As readers we are given the information that a large group of suitors has descended upon Penelope, trying to convince her Odysseus is dead and she should take one of their hands in marriage. By having Odysseus hope for something that directly contrasts the reality of the situation, Homer uses dramatic irony here to foreshadow further conflict in the story.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
After all he has gone through, arriving home now feels tangible for the first time in awhile. So, even though he is being celebrated, he is ready for the night to be over and he can finally be on his way to Ithaca. This longing symbolizes the power of home for the wandering Odysseus.— Evan, Owl Eyes Staff
Note that Athena's plan is to have Odysseus hide within a disguise she provides for him; this is somewhat similar to and builds on his idea for the Trojan Horse from the *Iliad*. Both deceptions conceal what is underneath, and both lead directly to many deaths.— Wesley, Owl Eyes Editor
By not having Odysseus immediately tell the truth upon returning to Ithaca, Homer reminds audience that Odysseus is characterized by his cunning. He knows that he has been away from home for so long, and he is taking cautious measures to assess the situation before revealing himself.— Wesley, Owl Eyes Editor
Just as Odysseus was gladdened earlier in the tale by Athena's appearance as a young girl, her appearance as the young shepherd also improves his mood. However, note that Odysseus is glad at the sight of a shepherd; he does not recognize this person as Athena.— Wesley, Owl Eyes Editor
This is the second time Athena has interceded on Odysseus's behalf by making him less visible in order to protect him; the first time was during his walk to Alcinous's cloister. Notice how Homer is attributing these circumstances to the gods while simultaneously using them as a device for controlling the elements of the plot.— Wesley, Owl Eyes Editor
Notice how Homer depicts Poseidon with almost childish envy as he approaches Zeus. Portraying the god in this way demonstrates another another example of the anthropomorphism with which the gods have been characterized throughout the tale.— Wesley, Owl Eyes Editor
Homer never discloses the fate of the Phaeacians' city. We can presume, however, that because Homer does not describe its destruction, Poseidon decides to spare the city.— Stephen Holliday
Athena reiterates the reason for sending Telemachus on his own voyage. In a culture in which one's reputation is everything, it is important for Telemachus to earn his own kind of fame other than just being the son of Odysseus.— Stephen Holliday
Homer adds a very human touch to this scene. Odysseus, who left Ithaca when Telemachus was an infant, most likely has lost track of time and doesn't immediately recall that Telemachus is already nearly a man.— Stephen Holliday
This should be read as "checked on.” Athena is accusing Odysseus of too much carefulness or craftiness in not seeming to care about his wife's situation.— Stephen Holliday
Since Odysseus did not see Athena from that day, he believed that she had abandoned him. However, this is dramatic irony because the reader she assisted him during his entire journey back to Ithaca.— Stephen Holliday
Even though Odysseus is well known for his endurance and patience in bad situations, Athena, also recognizing that he is still Ithaca's rightful king, needs to remind him to be humble while returning to his rightful seat. In doing so, she provides the proper context for him to approach the current situation in Ithaca.— Stephen Holliday
Sidonia (also, Cydonia) is a town at the northwestern edge of Crete, which is far to the south of Ithaca, but it is also the name of the main city of the Phoenicians. In either case, describing these sailors as having gone far to the south is a way to insure that no one will try to verify Odysseus' story.— Stephen Holliday
The syntax here could make the reference confusing. Orsilochus, not Idomeneus, was the fastest runner, and this perhaps explains why Odysseus had to ambush him rather than chase him.— Stephen Holliday
Idomeneus is a Greek warrior-king who led a large contingent of troops from Crete against the Trojans. He is known for his fierce temper, so he makes a good choice of someone Odysseus is trying to avoid.— Stephen Holliday
This reference to a morning star usually refers to Venus, which appears low in the east just before dawn. Notice the slight change from the rosy-fingered dawn opening that has been typical throughout.— Stephen Holliday
Homer may be purposefully foreshadowing the events that take place when Odysseus arrives home. In Ithaca, his chief strengths will be his quick thinking and adaptability.— Stephen Holliday
Alcinous tells his subjects that their gifts of a tripod and cauldron will be "tax deductible" because the gift is on behalf of the people. This represents the importance of gift giving in Greek culture.— Stephen Holliday