Book XVII

Telemachus and his mother meet
Odysseus and Eumaeus come down to the town,
and Odysseus is insulted by Melanthius
He is recognized by the dog Argos
He is insulted and presently struck by Antinous with a stool
Penelope desires that he shall be sent to her

WHEN THE CHILD of morning, rosy-fingered Dawn, appeared, Telemachus bound on his sandals and took a strong spear that suited his hands, for he wanted to go into the city. “Old friend,” said he to the swineherd, “I will now go to the town and show myself to my mother, for she will never leave off grieving till she has seen me. As for this unfortunate stranger, take him to the town and let him beg there of anyone who will give him a drink and a piece of bread. I have trouble enough of my own, and cannot be burdened with other people. If this makes him angry so much the worse for him, but I like to say what I mean.”

Then Odysseus said, “Sir, I do not want to stay here; a beggar can always do better in town than country, for anyone who likes can give him something. I am too old to care about remaining here at the beck and call of a master. Therefore let this man do as you have just told him, and take me to the town as soon as I have had a warm by the fire, and the day has got a little heat in it. My clothes are wretchedly thin, and this frosty morning I shall be perished with cold, for you say the city is some way off.”

On this Telemachus strode off through the yards, brooding his revenge upon the suitors. When he reached home he stood his spear against a bearing-post of the cloister, crossed the stone floor of the cloister itself, and went inside.

Nurse Euryclea saw him long before anyone else did. She was putting the fleeces on to the seats, and she burst out crying as she ran up to him; all the other maids came up too, and covered his head and shoulders with their kisses. Penelope came out of her room looking like Artemis or Aphrodite, and wept as she flung her arms about her son. She kissed his forehead and both his beautiful eyes, “Light of my eyes,” she cried as she spoke fondly to him, “so you are come home again; I made sure I was never going to see you any more. To think of your having gone off to Pylos without saying anything about it or obtaining my consent. But come, tell me what you saw.”

“Do not scold me, mother,” answered Telemachus, “nor vex me, seeing what a narrow escape I have had, but wash your face, change your dress, go upstairs with your maids, and promise full and sufficient hecatombs to all the gods if Zeus will only grant us our revenge upon the suitors. I must now go to the place of assembly to invite a stranger who has come back with me from Pylos. I sent him on with my crew, and told Piraeus to take him home and look after him till I could come for him myself.”

She heeded her son's words, washed her face, changed her dress, and vowed full and sufficient hecatombs to all the gods if they would only vouchsafe her revenge upon the suitors.

Telemachus went through, and out of, the cloisters spear in hand—not alone, for his two fleet dogs went with him. Athena endowed him with a presence of such divine comeliness that all marveled at him as he went by, and the suitors gathered round him with fair words in their mouths and malice in their hearts; but he avoided them, and went to sit with Mentor, Antiphus, and Halitherses, old friends of his father's house, and they made him tell them all that had happened to him. Then Piraeus came up with Theoclymenus, whom he had escorted through the town to the place of assembly, whereon Telemachus at once joined them. Piraeus was first to speak: “Telemachus,” said he, “I wish you would send some of your women to my house to take away the presents Menelaus gave you.”

“We do not know, Piraeus,” answered Telemachus, “what may happen. If the suitors kill me in my own house and divide my property among them, I would rather you had the presents than that any of those people should get hold of them. If on the other hand I managed to kill them, I shall be much obliged if you will kindly bring me my presents.”

With these words he took Theoclymenus to his own house. When they got there they laid their cloaks on the benches and seats, went into the baths, and washed themselves. When the maids had washed and anointed them, and had given them cloaks and shirts, they took their seats at table. A maid servant then brought them water in a beautiful golden ewer, and poured it into a silver basin for them to wash their hands; and she drew a clean table beside them. An upper servant brought them bread and offered them many good things of what there was in the house. Opposite them sat Penelope, reclining on a couch by one of the bearing-posts of the cloister, and spinning. Then they laid their hands on the good things that were before them, and as soon as they had had enough to eat and drink Penelope said:

“Telemachus, I shall go upstairs and lie down on that sad couch, which I have not ceased to water with my tears, from the day Odysseus set out for Troy with the sons of Atreus. You failed, however, to make it clear to me before the suitors came back to the house, whether or no you had been able to hear anything about the return of your father.”

“I will tell you then truth,” replied her son. “We went to Pylos and saw Nestor, who took me to his house and treated me as hospitably as though I were a son of his own who had just returned after a long absence; so also did his sons; but he said he had not heard a word from any human being about Odysseus, whether he was alive or dead. He sent me, therefore, with a chariot and horses to Menelaus. There I saw Helen, for whose sake so many, both Argives and Trojans, were in heaven's wisdom doomed to suffer. Menelaus asked me what it was that had brought me to Lacedaemon, and I told him the whole truth, whereon he said, ‘So, then, these cowards would usurp a brave man's bed? A hind might as well lay her new-born young in the lair of a lion, and then go off to feed in the forest or in some grassy dell. The lion, when he comes back to his lair, will make short work with the pair of them, and so will Odysseus with these suitors. By father Zeus, Athena, and Apollo, if Odysseus is still the man that he was when he wrestled with Philomeleides in Lesbos, and threw him so heavily that all the Greeks cheered him—if he is still such, and were to come near these suitors, they would have a short shrift and a sorry wedding. As regards your question, however, I will not prevaricate nor deceive you, but what the old man of the sea told me, so much will I tell you in full. He said he could see Odysseus on an island sorrowing bitterly in the house of the nymph Calypso, who was keeping him prisoner, and he could not reach his home, for he had no ships nor sailors to take him over the sea.’ This was what Menelaus told me, and when I had heard his story I came away; the gods then gave me a fair wind and soon brought me safe home again.”

With these words he moved the heart of Penelope. Then Theoclymenus said to her:

“Madam, wife of Odysseus, Telemachus does not understand these things; listen therefore to me, for I can divine them surely, and will hide nothing from you. May Zeus the king of heaven be my witness, and the rites of hospitality, with that hearth of Odysseus to which I now come, that Odysseus himself is even now in Ithaca, and, either going about the country or staying in one place, is enquiring into all these evil deeds and preparing a day of reckoning for the suitors. I saw an omen when I was on the ship which meant this, and I told Telemachus about it.”

“May it be even so,” answered Penelope; “if your words come true, you shall have such gifts and such good will from me that all who see you shall congratulate you.”

Thus did they converse. Meanwhile the suitors were throwing discs, or aiming with spears at a mark on the levelled ground in front of the house, and behaving with all their old insolence. But when it was now time for dinner, and the flock of sheep and goats had come into the town from all the country round, with their shepherds as usual, then Medon, who was their favorite servant, and who waited upon them at table, said, “Now then, my young masters, you have had enough sport, so come inside that we may get dinner ready. Dinner is not a bad thing, at dinner time.”

They left their sports as he told them, and when they were within the house, they laid their cloaks on the benches and seats inside, and then sacrificed some sheep, goats, pigs, and a heifer, all of them fat and well grown. Thus they made ready for their meal. In the meantime Odysseus and the swineherd were about starting for the town, and the swineherd said, “Stranger, I suppose you still want to go to town to-day, as my master said you were to do; for my own part I should have liked you to stay here as a station hand, but I must do as my master tells me, or he will scold me later on, and a scolding from one's master is a very serious thing. Let us then be off, for it is now broad day; it will be night again directly and then you will find it colder.”

“I know, and understand you,” replied Odysseus; “you need say no more. Let us be going, but if you have a stick ready cut, let me have it to walk with, for you say the road is a very rough one.”

As he spoke he threw his shabby old tattered wallet over his shoulders, by the cord from which it hung, and Eumaeus gave him a stick to his liking. The two then started, leaving the station in charge of the dogs and herdsmen who remained behind; the swineherd led the way and his master followed after, looking like some broken down old tramp as he leaned upon his staff, and his clothes were all in rags. When they had got over the rough steep ground and were nearing the city, they reached the fountain from which the citizens drew their water. This had been made by Ithacus, Neritus, and Polyctor. There was a grove of water-loving poplars planted in a circle all round it, and the clear cold water came down to it from a rock high up, while above the fountain there was an altar to the nymphs, at which all wayfarers used to sacrifice. Here Melanthius son of Dolius overtook them as he was driving down some goats, the best in his flock, for the suitors' dinner, and there were two shepherds with him. When he saw Eumaeus and Odysseus he reviled them with outrageous and unseemly language, which made Odysseus very angry.

“There you go,” cried he, “and a precious pair you are. See how heaven brings birds of the same feather to one another. Where, pray, master swineherd, are you taking this poor miserable object? It would make anyone sick to see such a creature at table. A fellow like this never won a prize for anything in his life, but will go about rubbing his shoulders against every man's door post, and begging, not for swords and cauldrons like a man, but only for a few scraps not worth begging for. If you would give him to me for a hand on my station, he might do to clean out the folds, or bring a bit of sweet feed to the kids, and he could fatten his thighs as much as he pleased on whey; but he has taken to bad ways and will not go about any kind of work; he will do nothing but beg victuals all the town over, to feed his insatiable belly. I say, therefore—and it shall surely be—if he goes near Odysseus' house he will get his head broken by the stools they will fling at him, till they turn him out.”

On this, as he passed, he gave Odysseus a kick on the hip out of pure wantonness, but Odysseus stood firm, and did not budge from the path. For a moment he considred whether or not to fly at Melanthius and kill him with his staff, or fling him to the ground and beat his brains out; he resolved, however, to endure it and keep himself in check, but the swineherd looked straight at Melanthius and rebuked him, lifting up his hands and praying to heaven as he did so.

“Fountain nymphs,” he cried, “children of Zeus, if ever Odysseus burned you thigh bones covered with fat whether of lambs or kids, grant my prayer that heaven may send him home. He would soon put an end to the swaggering threats with which such men as you go about insulting people—gadding all over the town while your flocks are going to ruin through bad shepherding.”

Then Melanthius the goatherd answered, “You ill conditioned cur, what are you talking about? Some day or other I will put you on board ship and take you to a foreign country, where I can sell you and pocket the money you will fetch. I wish I were as sure that Apollo would strike Telemachus dead this very day, or that the suitors would kill him, as I am that Odysseus will never come home again.”

With this he left them to come on at their leisure, while he went quickly forward and soon reached the house of his master. When he got there he went in and took his seat among the suitors opposite Eurymachus, who liked him better than any of the others. The servants brought him a portion of meat, and an upper woman servant set bread before him that he might eat. Presently Odysseus and the swineherd came up to the house and stood by it, amid a sound of music, for Phemius was just beginning to sing to the suitors. Then Odysseus took hold of the swineherd's hand, and said:

“Eumaeus, this house of Odysseus is a very fine place. No matter how far you go, you will find few like it. One building keeps following on after another. The outer court has a wall with battlements all round it; the doors are double folding, and of good workmanship; it would be a hard matter to take it by force of arms. I perceive, too, that there are many people banqueting within it, for there is a smell of roast meat, and I hear a sound of music, which the gods have made to go along with feasting.”

Then Eumaeus said, “You have perceived aright, as indeed you generally do; but let us think what will be our best course. Will you go inside first and join the suitors, leaving me here behind you, or will you wait here and let me go in first? But do not wait long, or someone may see you loitering about outside, and throw something at you. Consider this matter I pray you.”

And Odysseus answered, “I understand and heed. Go in first and leave me here where I am. I am quite used to being beaten and having things thrown at me. I have been so much buffeted about in war and by sea that I am case-hardened, and this too may go with the rest. But a man cannot hide away the cravings of a hungry belly; this is an enemy which gives much trouble to all men; it is because of this that ships are fitted out to sail the seas, and to make war upon other people.”

As they were thus talking, a dog that had been lying asleep raised his head and pricked up his ears. This was Argos, whom Odysseus had bred before setting out for Troy, but he had never had any work out of him. In the old days he used to be taken out by the young men when they went hunting wild goats, or deer, or hares, but now that his master was gone he was lying neglected on the heaps of mule and cow dung that lay in front of the stable doors till the men should come and draw it away to manure the great close; and he was full of fleas. As soon as he saw Odysseus standing there, he dropped his ears and wagged his tail, but he could not get close up to his master. When Odysseus saw the dog on the other side of the yard, he dashed a tear from his eyes without Eumaeus seeing it, and said:

“Eumaeus, what a noble hound that is over yonder on the manure heap: his build is splendid; is he as fine a fellow as he looks, or is he only one of those dogs that come begging about a table, and are kept merely for show?”

“This hound,” answered Eumaeus, “belonged to him who has died in a far country. If he were what he was when Odysseus left for Troy, he would soon show you what he could do. There was not a wild beast in the forest that could get away from him when he was once on its tracks. But now he has fallen on evil times, for his master is dead and gone, and the women take no care of him. Servants never do their work when their master's hand is no longer over them, for Zeus takes half the goodness out of a man when he makes a slave of him.”

As he spoke he went inside the buildings to the cloister where the suitors were, but Argos died as soon as he had recognized his master.

Telemachus saw Eumaeus long before anyone else did, and beckoned him to come and sit beside him; so he looked about and saw a seat lying near where the carver sat serving out their portions to the suitors; he picked it up, brought it to Telemachus' table, and sat down opposite him. Then the servant brought him his portion, and gave him bread from the bread-basket.

Immediately afterwards Odysseus came inside, looking like a poor miserable old beggar, leaning on his staff and with his clothes all in rags. He sat down upon the threshold of ash-wood just inside the doors leading from the outer to the inner court, and against a bearing-post of cypress-wood which the carpenter had skilfully planed, and had made to join truly with rule and line. Telemachus took a whole loaf from the bread-basket, with as much meat as he could hold in his two hands, and said to Eumaeus, “Take this to the stranger, and tell him to go the round of the suitors, and beg from them; a beggar must not be shamefaced.”

So Eumaeus went up to him and said, “Stranger, Telemachus sends you this, and says you are to go the round of the suitors begging, for beggars must not be shamefaced.”

Odysseus answered, “May King Zeus grant all happiness to Telemachus, and fulfil the desire of his heart.”

Then with both hands he took what Telemachus had sent him, and laid it on the dirty old wallet at his feet. He went on eating it while the bard was singing, and had just finished his dinner as he left off. The suitors applauded the bard, whereupon Athena went up to Odysseus and prompted him to beg pieces of bread from each one of the suitors, that he might see what kind of people they were, and tell the good from the bad; but come what might she was not going to save a single one of them. Odysseus, therefore, went on his round, going from left to right, and stretched out his hands to beg as though he were a real beggar. Some of them pitied him, and were curious about him, asking one another who he was and where he came from; whereon the goatherd Melanthius said, “Suitors of my noble mistress, I can tell you something about him, for I have seen him before. The swineherd brought him here, but I know nothing about the man himself, nor where he comes from.”

On this Antinous began to abuse the swineherd. “You precious idiot,” he cried, “what have you brought this man to town for? Have we not tramps and beggars enough already to pester us as we sit at meat? Do you think it a small thing that such people gather here to waste your master's property—and must you needs bring this man as well?”

And Eumaeus answered, “Antinous, your birth is good but your words evil. It was no doing of mine that he came here. Who is likely to invite a stranger from a foreign country, unless it be one of those who can do public service as a seer, a healer of hurts, a carpenter, or a bard who can charm us with his singing? Such men are welcome all the world over, but no one is likely to ask a beggar who will only worry him. You are always harder on Odysseus' servants than any of the other suitors are, and above all on me, but I do not care so long as Telemachus and Penelope are alive and here.”

But Telemachus said, “Hush, do not answer him; Antinous has the bitterest tongue of all the suitors, and he makes the others worse.”

Then turning to Antinous he said, “Antinous, you take as much care of my interests as though I were your son. Why should you want to see this stranger turned out of the house? Heaven forbid; take something and give it him yourself; I do not grudge it; I bid you take it. Never mind my mother, nor any of the other servants in the house; but I know you will not do what I say, for you are more fond of eating things yourself than of giving them to other people.”

“What do you mean, Telemachus,” replied Antinous, “by this swaggering talk? If all the suitors were to give him as much as I will, he would not come here again for another three months.”

As he spoke he drew the stool on which he rested his dainty feet from under the table, and made as though he would throw it at Odysseus, but the other suitors all gave him something, and filled his wallet with bread and meat; he was about, therefore, to go back to the threshold and eat what the suitors had given him, but he first went up to Antinous and said:

“Sir, give me something; you are not, surely, the poorest man here; you seem to be a chief, foremost among them all; therefore you should be the better giver, and I will tell far and wide of your bounty. I too was a rich man once, and had a fine house of my own; in those days I gave to many a tramp such as I now am, no matter who he might be nor what he wanted. I had any number of servants, and all the other things which people have who live well and are accounted wealthy, but it pleased Zeus to take all away from me. He sent me with a band of roving robbers to Egypt; it was a long voyage and I was undone by it. I stationed my ships in the river Aegyptus, and bade my men stay by them and keep guard over them, while I sent out scouts to reconnoitre from every point of vantage.

“But the men disobeyed my orders, took to their own devices, and ravaged the land of the Egyptians, killing the men, and taking their wives and children captives. The alarm was soon carried to the city, and when they heard the war-cry, the people came out at daybreak till the plain was filled with soldiers horse and foot, and with the gleam of armor. Then Zeus spread panic among my men, and they would no longer face the enemy, for they found themselves surrounded. The Egyptians killed many of us, and took the rest alive to do forced labor for them; as for myself, they gave me to a friend who met them, to take to Cyprus, Dmetor by name, son of Iasus, who was a great man in Cyprus. Thence I am come hither in a state of great misery.”

Then Antinous said, “What god can have sent such a pestilence to plague us during our dinner? Get out, into the open part of the court, or I will give you Egypt and Cyprus over again for your insolence and importunity; you have begged of all the others, and they have given you lavishly, for they have abundance round them, and it is easy to be free with other people's property when there is plenty of it.”

On this Odysseus began to move off, and said, “Your looks, my fine sir, are better than your breeding; if you were in your own house you would not spare a poor man so much as a pinch of salt, for though you are in another man's, and surrounded with abundance, you cannot find it in you to give him even a piece of bread.”

This made Antinous very angry, and he scowled at him saying, “You shall pay for this before you get clear of the court.” With these words he threw a footstool at him, and hit him on the right shoulder blade near the top of his back. Odysseus stood firm as a rock and the blow did not even stagger him, but he shook his head in silence as he brooded on his revenge. Then he went back to the threshold and sat down there, laying his well filled wallet at his feet.

“Listen to me,” he cried, “you suitors of Queen Penelope, that I may speak even as I am minded. A man knows neither ache nor pain if he gets hit while fighting for his money, or for his sheep or his cattle; and even so Antinous has hit me while in the service of my miserable belly, which is always getting people into trouble. Still, if the poor have gods and avenging deities at all, I pray them that Antinous may come to a bad end before his marriage.”

“Sit where you are, and eat your victuals in silence, or be off elsewhere,” shouted Antinous. “If you say more I will have you dragged hand and foot through the courts, and the servants shall flay you alive.”

The other suitors were much displeased at this, and one of the young men said, “Antinous, you did ill in striking that poor wretch of a tramp: it will be worse for you if he should turn out to be some god—and we know the gods go about disguised in all sorts of ways as people from foreign countries, and travel about the world to see who do amiss and who righteously.”

Thus said the suitors, but Antinous paid them no heed. Meanwhile Telemachus was furious about the blow that had been given to his father, and though no tear fell from him, he shook his head in silence and brooded on his revenge.

Now when Penelope heard that the beggar had been struck in the banqueting-cloister, she said before her maids, “Would that Apollo would so strike you, Antinous,” and her waiting woman Eurynome answered, “If our prayers were answered not one of the suitors would ever again see the sun rise.” Then Penelope said, “Nurse, I hate every single one of them, for they mean nothing but mischief, but I hate Antinous like the darkness of death itself. A poor unfortunate tramp has come begging about the house for sheer want. Everyone else has given him something to put in his wallet, but Antinous has hit him on the right shoulder-blade with a footstool.”

Thus did she talk with her maids as she sat in her own room, and in the meantime Odysseus was getting his dinner. Then she called for the swineherd and said, “Eumaeus, go and tell the stranger to come here, I want to see him and ask him some questions. He seems to have traveled much, and he may have seen or heard something of my unhappy husband.”

To this you answered, O swineherd Eumaeus, “If these Achaeans, Madam, would only keep quiet, you would be charmed with the history of his adventures. I had him three days and three nights with me in my hut, which was the first place he reached after running away from his ship, and he has not yet completed the story of his misfortunes. If he had been the most heaven-taught minstrel in the whole world, on whose lips all hearers hang entranced, I could not have been more charmed as I sat in my hut and listened to him. He says there is an old friendship between his house and that of Odysseus, and that he comes from Crete where the descendants of Minos live, after having been driven hither and thither by every kind of misfortune; he also declares that he has heard of Odysseus as being alive and near at hand among the Thesprotians, and that he is bringing great wealth home with him.”

“Call him here, then,” said Penelope, “that I too may hear his story. As for the suitors, let them take their pleasure indoors or out as they will, for they have nothing to fret about. Their corn and wine remain unwasted in their houses with none but servants to consume them, while they keep hanging about our house day after day sacrificing our oxen, sheep, and fat goats for their banquets, and never giving so much as a thought to the quantity of wine they drink. No estate can stand such recklessness, for we have now no Odysseus to protect us. If he were to come again, he and his son would soon have their revenge.”

As she spoke Telemachus sneezed so loudly that the whole house resounded with it. Penelope laughed when she heard this, and said to Eumaeus, “Go and call the stranger; did you not hear how my son sneezed just as I was speaking? This can only mean that all the suitors are going to be killed, and that not one of them shall escape. Furthermore I say, and lay my saying to your heart: if I am satisfied that the stranger is speaking the truth I shall give him a shirt and cloak of good wear.”

When Eumaeus heard this he went straight to Odysseus and said, “Father stranger, my mistress Penelope, mother of Telemachus, has sent for you; she is in great grief, but she wishes to hear anything you can tell her about her husband, and if she is satisfied that you are speaking the truth, she will give you a shirt and cloak, which are the very things that you are most in want of. As for bread, you can get enough of that to fill your belly, by begging about the town, and letting those give that will.”

“I will tell Penelope,” answered Odysseus, “nothing but what is strictly true. I know all about her husband, and have been partner with him in affliction, but I am afraid of passing through this crowd of cruel suitors, for their pride and insolence reach heaven. Just now, moreover, as I was going about the house without doing any harm, a man gave me a blow that hurt me very much, but neither Telemachus nor anyone else defended me. Tell Penelope, therefore, to be patient and wait till sundown. Let her give me a seat close up to the fire, for my clothes are worn very thin—you know they are, for you have seen them ever since I first asked you to help me—she can then ask me about the return of her husband.”

The swineherd went back when he heard this, and Penelope said as she saw him cross the threshold, “Why do you not bring him here, Eumaeus? Is he afraid that someone will ill-treat him, or is he shy of coming inside the house at all? Beggars should not be shamefaced.”

To this you answered, O swineherd Eumaeus, “The stranger is quite reasonable. He is avoiding the suitors, and is only doing what anyone else would do. He asks you to wait till sundown, and it will be much better, madam, that you should have him all to yourself, when you can hear him and talk to him as you will.”

“The man is no fool,” answered Penelope, “it would very likely be as he says, for there are no such abominable people in the whole world as these men are.”

When she had done speaking Eumaeus went back to the suitors, for he had explained everything. Then he went up to Telemachus and said in his ear so that none could overhear him, “My dear sir, I will now go back to the pigs, to see after your property and my own business. You will look to what is going on here, but above all be careful to keep out of danger, for there are many who bear you ill will. May Zeus bring them to a bad end before they do us a mischief.”

“Very well,” replied Telemachus, “go home when you have had your dinner, and in the morning come here with the victims we are to sacrifice for the day. Leave the rest to heaven and me.”

On this Eumaeus took his seat again, and when he had finished his dinner he left the courts and the cloister with the men at table, and went back to his pigs. As for the suitors, they presently began to amuse themselves with singing and dancing, for it was now getting on towards evening.

Footnotes

  1. Throughout the tale, Odysseus has been quick to protect his ego and his pride. However, at this point in the tale, he has learned some humility and demonstrated it through patience. Melanthius the goatherd treats him like a beggar and even lashes out at him. Odysseus's natural response is to retaliate, but he checks himself this time, trusting that he will have his revenge eventually.

    — Wesley, Owl Eyes Editor
  2. Telemachus said the same thing earlier in this book. It's unclear whether this is a belief that was generally held in ancient Greece or if it's something that Odysseus made sure to teach his family, because of his high moral values and respect for the traditions of *xenia*. This repititon emphasizes the connection between mother and son.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  3. Typically, a woman whose husband was absent wouldn't receive guests after sundown for fear of an assault or a perception of impropriety. Odysseus here assumes a privilege that beggars weren't allowed, but which Eumaeus grants him because he's been injured and earned the respect of the house.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  4. This entire interaction is atypical of beggars and noblemen. A beggar wouldn't have dared to cry out against the suitors, nor would a host have been so willfully cruel to a poor wretch, but because both men are arrogant and have opposing plans, the situation escalates unnecessarily.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  5. Antinous suggests that he and the suitors are being wasteful with Odysseus' property merely because they can, which implies that, if they were in their own houses, they wouldn't be nearly as generous, if at all. This calls all their acts of generosity into question and makes it impossible to know who's good and who's bad.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  6. There are no other accounts of these characters in Greek literature, suggesting that Homer made them up entirely, as Odysseus has, or that they were of such insignificance that they were not documented in their time.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  7. Antinous mocks Telemachus by offering Odysseus this much food. It's clear from his tone that he's momentarily saving face and that if Odysseus says or does anything to displease him this generosity will turn quickly to violence and hatred.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  8. Recall that Telemachus and Eumaeus are sitting together and that the swineherd wouldn't normally be invited to sit at the table. That Telemachus says "hush" suggests that's he's whispering his advice to Eumaeus, who doesn't seem to care.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  9. It should be noted that Odysseus is merely paying the suitors a courtesy in not assuming that every single one of them deserves to be punished. In the end, they will all get their due, but Athena's intentions are clear in this line: any show of good will or morality will not restore their standing with the gods, who've already made their decision in this matter.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  10. Telemachus in essence orders Odysseus to run the gauntlet, begging from suitors who are more likely to abuse him than to give him any of their food and wine. Telemachus has to do this to keep Odysseus' identity a secret, but may also be wondering how far his father is willing to go to carry out his plan.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  11. Odysseus expresses his willingness to suffer here in order to carry out his plan. This is at once a testament to his character, which proves strong enough to withstand being "buffeted" about, and an attempt on Homer's part to prepare him for the scene to come, in which Odysseus allows himself to be scorned.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  12. Eumaeus has noticed how unusually perceptive and intelligent this "stranger" is for a beggar. Some of this has been explained away by Odysseus' fake backstory, but Eumaeus still has reason to believe that there's more to this beggar and that he may be worth keeping around.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  13. Homer may be emphasizing how large and well-defended the house is to prepare us for a later battle. It's also possible that he's showing off Odysseus' considerable wealth by saying that one building "keeps following on" after another, suggesting an entire complex, not just a house.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  14. It's unclear whether or not Melanthius knows of the suitors' plan to kill Telemachus. If so, he might be saying that Telemachus is going to die, but he isn't sure when. If not, then he must believe that this will happen eventually, if not at the hands of the suitors but because the gods seem to be against Odysseus and his family.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  15. Wanton meaning unruly, naught, or disobedient; also, reckless, willful, and wild. When applied to women, "wanton" generally refers to lust and sexual promiscuity, which just goes to show how gendered the English language has become.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  16. Melanthius may not be the most loyal or respectful servant, but he is familiar with the suitors and knows how they behave. Likely, he's seen the suitors throw stools at strangers before, which prepares us for what actually happens when Odysseus meets the suitors.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  17. Note the irony of this statement. Melanthius, a man of little to no means and a servant with no respect for his master, would never receive a sword or a cauldron as a gift, making him, by his own definition, less of a man. This further underscores how unhealthy the gender roles in ancient Greece were.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  18. In *The Odyssey*, birds are usually symbols that soothsayers read to foretell the future. A dove might mean peace, a hawk might represent power, and an unnamed bird, such as one mentioned here, would mean nothing, except that one was of low status and not worthy of a more meaningful bird.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  19. A simple goatherd on Odysseus' estate, Melanthius is one of the suitors' favorite servants, along with Medon, and is often allowed to eat in the same dining hall as them, despite their difference in status. Here, he expresses disdain for the loyal Eumaeus and unknowingly insults his master, Odysseus.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  20. That Homer describes their insolence as "old" suggests that there was a period of time when they weren't feeling as secure about their prospects but that (they think) this time has passed. For the suitors, the primary form of entertainment is competition, both in games and in their fight for Odysseus' estate.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  21. Recall that Penelope has consulted many soothsayers and heard a lot of stories about Odysseus over the years. This one, though the most accurate and most hopeful, is in effect the same as the others, and receives the same hesitant response: "may it be so," suggesting that Penelope doesn't think it will.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  22. Theoclymenus makes a mistake here in suggesting that Telemachus has withheld information from Penelope. He either doesn't know that this isn't goof etiquette or doesn't think that their plan can be ruined by his revealing Odysseus' whereabouts. Either way, showing off his powers like this isn't very wise.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  23. Telemachus places faith both in human endeavors (his father's plan) and the gods (via this offering to Zeus). This duality existed throughout ancient Greece and colors the behavior of all the main characters in *The Odyssey*, who must rely both on their wits and on the favor of the gods in order to survive.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  24. Homer arranges it so that Euryclea sees Telemachus first to emphasize her close relationship with Telemachus and his family. As Nurse, she has been Telemachus' primary caregiver and thus the one most likely to support him. This also foreshadows her later recognition of Odysseus.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  25. Telemachus appears to be having some fun with this speech. At this point, it's too risky for him to reveal Odysseus' true identity, because too much rides on a successful disguise, but that doesn't mean he can't still make a joke about his father, who almost never says what he means.

    — Sinead, Owl Eyes Editor
  26. This may be a double entendre, or a phrase with double meanings: Telemachus may have in mind both the animals being sacrificed and the suitors, of whom he intends to make another kind of "sacrifice" as he and Odysseus take revenge upon them for their insolence.

    — Stephen Holliday
  27. This isn't, of course, a criticism of Telemachus but rather a lie or fake-out designed to keep Odysseus' identity hidden. His complaint here misdirects Eumaeus' attention and keep him from figuring out what's going on and unintentionally tipping off the suitors to their danger.

    — Stephen Holliday
  28. Up to this point in the poem, Penelope's feelings about the suitors haven't been so clearly or viscerally described. This outburst, however, makes it clear that Penelope has been hiding her hatred and her passion in an effort to preserve her safety in Odysseus' long absence.

    — Stephen Holliday
  29. Sneezing while someone else is talking was a well-known Greek omen. It's possible that Telemachus's sneeze is a warning to his father to get out of the house before he's sought out by Eumaeus for this visit to Penelope. It's also possible that he's doing just as Penelope says: confirming that the suitors will indeed meet their fate at the hands of Odysseus.

    — Stephen Holliday
  30. Notice how Eumaeus has shifted his tone when addressing the beggar. Odysseus' natural behavior has created the kind of respect Eumaeus would give to Odysseus were he to recognize his master, and this is reason enough for Eumaeus to hold the beggar in higher esteem than he does the suitors.

    — Stephen Holliday
  31. In ancient Greek culture, bards (poets) and minstrels were thought to be inspired by the Graces and the Muses and were honored for their talents. Comparing Odysseus to a bard elevates him to this status and gives backhanded praise to Homer for being able to write a story about people who tell such good stories.

    — Stephen Holliday
  32. If Odysseus had truly been a beggar, he wouldn't have challenged Antinous like this, but Odysseus, the warrior-king, can't bring himself to ignore Antinous's bad behavior. More importantly, addressing Antinous gives Odysseus the chance to re-tell his story, which gives credence to his presence there as a beggar.

    — Stephen Holliday
  33. Antinous is the son of Eupeithes. Before Odysseus left for the Trojan War, Eupeithes, one of Ithaca's leading citizens, attacked a ship belonging to allies of Ithaca, the Thesprotians, and incurred the anger of the Ithacan people. Odysseus protected Eupeithes, thus making Antinous' behavior toward the family of his father's protector especially dishonorable.

    — Stephen Holliday
  34. Keep in mind that Zeus himself is a patron saint of suppliants and beggars. To mistreat such a person is to invite Zeus' anger, but, as Telemachus points out in the rest of his speech, the suitors don't seem to care about mistreating people, not even their own host, Penelope.

    — Stephen Holliday
  35. This construction detail is meant to underscore the quality of Odysseus' house and the care with which it was constructed. Later, we will learn that Odysseus himself is a skilled carpenter, among his many other skills, and that he took some part in the building of the house and its bearing-posts.

    — Stephen Holliday
  36. Odysseus observes the protocol for beggars: they are neither inside nor outside the house, but halfway in and halfway out, depending on one's view of beggars. This mirrors his actions at the house of Alcinous, where he sat in the ashes until the king and queen had decided where or not to accept him as a guest.

    — Stephen Holliday
  37. Homer doesn't typically rely on pathos for dramatic and emotional resonance in *The Odyssey," but here uses it to great effect, allowing Odysseus' loyal dog, Argos, to rest easy now that he has finally seen his master's return (the implication being that he stayed alive all those years to wait for Odysseus).

    — Stephen Holliday
  38. Though slavery was the cultural norm in ancient Greece and not often criticized as a practice, it nevertheless cause some emotional and psychological problems for slaves, who lose half of their goodness (or sense of self-worth) and become less disciplined when their masters are gone.

    — Stephen Holliday
  39. Homer may not be keeping track of dog years here. For Odysseus to have bred Argos as a pup, he would have to be at least twenty years old, which is a remarkable feat for any breed of dog. By using the name Argos, Homer may be attempting to link Odysseus loosely with Jason and the Argonauts.

    — Stephen Holliday
  40. It is unclear why Eurymachus likes Melanthius more than others, but it may be because Melantho, a servant in Odysseus' household and Melanthius' sister, is Eurymachus' mistress and sides with the suitors against Odysseus' and his family.

    — Stephen Holliday
  41. Ithacus appears to have been the founding father of Ithaca, the oldest of the three brothers mentioned here. Neritus, a brother of Ithacus, gave his name to Mount Neriton, the tallest mountain on Ithaca. Polyctor, the third brother, was said to have created the Polyctorium on Ithaca.

    — Stephen Holliday
  42. Medon may be more than just a servant. He seems to have been either in charge of Odysseus' household or Odysseus' herald, in which case he would've been born into the nobility and taken into the household as one of their most trusted servants. Evidently, that trust was misplaced, because the suitors seem to love him.

    — Stephen Holliday
  43. Note that Telemachus paraphrases Menelaus's speech for his mother. Menelaus was careful to say that *if* Odysseus was alive, he would dispatch the suitors easily, but Telemachus doesn't couch this statement in doubt or hope; he just says it: Odysseus will make short work of the suitors.

    — Stephen Holliday
  44. Interestingly, this isn't the first time Penelope has been mentioned as being by a "bearing-post" of the house. As before, this can be taken as a sign that she needs to feel some kind of support in this tense atmosphere. It's also foreshadowing of a scene later in the poem.

    — Stephen Holliday
  45. Telemachus must maintain the fiction that he alone will confront the suitors, and, in this case, it would make perfect sense to Piraeus that Telemachus wouldn't want Menelaus' presents to fall into the suitors' hands. This is also a logistical concern: Telemachus doesn't want to take the time to organize these presents.

    — Stephen Holliday
  46. Note that this is the real Mentor, not Athena. Mentor and Halitherses are trusted servants of Odysseus. Antiphus, the son of Aegyptus, was mentioned in Book II, line 19, as having been killed and eaten by the Cyclops, but such inconsistencies were common in oral poetry (there are several similar problems in *The Iliad*).

    — Stephen Holliday
  47. Telemachus' absence and sudden reappearance hasn't helped his relationship with his mother, which as we've seen has been strained by the presence of the suitors. In this particular passage, though, Telemachus' harsh tone can be written off as a result of the stress he's under hiding his father's identity.

    — Stephen Holliday
  48. As several scholars have pointed out, in the original Greek, Penelope asks Telemachus not what he has seen but rather whether he has any news of Odysseus or if he has seen his father. This shifts the focus from him (the adored child) to Odysseus (the absent father) and tells us a lot about Penelope's priorities.

    — Stephen Holliday
  49. Homer describes Penelope as a combination of Artemis, known for her honor and chastity, and Aphrodite, known for her physical attributes. This represents the two aspects of her character: the faithful wife waiting for her husband, and the beautiful woman who should be adored.

    — Stephen Holliday
  50. We can infer from this description that weapons were normally kept outside of the home. With that in mind, the fact that the suitors carry their weapons in the courtyard of Odysseus' home becomes yet another example of their bad behavior.

    — Stephen Holliday