Imagery in What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?
Imagery for the Senses: Douglass understood the power of imagery to compel an audience. To illustrate his arguments, he often crafted images which lent his claims both tangibility and emotional presence. To warn of the “remorseless jaws of slavery” devouring black men turns the issue from an abstraction into a pulse-quickening peril. Douglass uses imagery that appeals to all the senses, not sight alone. Consider with your ears the “ear-piercing fife and stirring drum” of the festivities. Consider with your hands Douglass’s command to “cling to this day [...] and to its principles, with the grasp of a storm-tossed mariner to a spar at midnight.” An oration by Douglass is an experience for the senses, just as it is for the emotions and the intellect.
Imagery Examples in What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July? :
Text of Douglass's Speech
"blacker..." See in text (Text of Douglass's Speech)
Douglass uses visual imagery to demonstrate the dichotomy between the colors white and black. In Western cultures, the color white traditionally illustrates life and prosperity, while black describes its opposite—darkness, death, and mourning. This wordplay suggests that by ostracizing black people, the country is made even darker.
"Fellow-citizens; above your national, tumultuous joy, I hear the mournful wail of millions!..." See in text (Text of Douglass's Speech)
Douglass begins this paragraph with an exclamation that contrasts the audience’s sense of jubilation against his sense of mourning. He achieves this with the use of an auditory image wherein he juxtaposes a patriotic, loud sound against a pitiful cry.
"The ear-piercing fife and the stirring drum unite their accents with the ascending peal of a thousand church bells...." See in text (Text of Douglass's Speech)
Douglass paints a vibrant auditory landscape in which the music of the fife and drum combines with the ringing of the church bells. This scene is an illustration of the community gathering to commemorate the independence of the United States. On a subtler level, the image represents the unity of church—symbolized by the bells—and state—symbolized by the fife and drum so central to the American military from the Revolutionary War through the 19th century. While the Bill of Rights makes a provision for the separation of church and state, Douglass suggests here that Independence Day is so stirring that all American citizens and institutions can gather to honor their shared freedom.
"your ears are saluted with a scream, that seems to have torn its way to the centre of your soul!..." See in text (Text of Douglass's Speech)
Douglass uses auditory and kinesthetic imagery in this passage to convey the emotion of the scene. Words like “snap,” “clank,” and “rattles,” evoke a sensory response with their rich sounds. The auditory imagery continues with “your ears are saluted with a scream,” a sound which has “torn its way into the centre of your soul!”—an example of kinesthetic imagery, in which an internal response is evoked. Since Douglass’s aim in this paragraph is to have his audience live through the slaves’ experience, imagery serves a valuable purpose in conveying how others feel.
"O! had I the ability, and could I reach the nation's ear, I would, to-day, pour out a fiery stream of biting ridicule, blasting reproach, withering sarcasm, and stern rebuke...." See in text (Text of Douglass's Speech)
Douglass understates his own capacity for rhetorical effect at the beginning of this passage only to demonstrate through effective diction and imagery that he does possess the necessary oratory skills to inspire an audience to action. The list that follows from “fiery stream” includes examples of auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile imagery. The cadence of the list adds cumulative rhetorical power.
"From the round top of your ship of state, dark and threatening clouds may be seen...." See in text (Text of Douglass's Speech)
Within this extended metaphor, Douglass adds power to his ideas by employing visual, auditory, and tactile imagery, which he achieves through the use of adjectives like “dark, flinty, and storm-tossed” and verbs like “drawn,” “broken,” “cling,” and “spar.”