"a very dragon at his catechism, and who may therefore be regarded as a credible witness..."
See in text (Chapter 1 - I Am Born)
This metaphor describes someone who is so strict with (dragon) and well versed in his religious beliefs (catechism) that he can be relied upon to tell the absolute truth.
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"as poor as job..."
See in text (Chapter 6 - I Enlarge My Circle Of Acquaintance)
As poor as Job, an allusion to the character in the Book of Job in the Bible; once a very wealthy man, Job loses all of his wealth as his love of God is tested.
"gave me her cold finger-nails..."
See in text (Chapter 9 - I Have A Memorable Birthday)
An allusion to her shaking Davy's hand, without warmth or sympathy.
See in text (Chapter 12 - Liking Life On My Own Account No Better, I Form A Great Resolution)
An extension of the metaphor describing procrastination as a thief. "Arrest and detain" procrastination, meaning do not procrastinate.