Historical Context in Gulliver's Travels
Travel Journal: As a subset of travel literature, the travel journal focuses on the author’s personal experiences and changes as a consequence of travel. First arising in Greece and medieval China, one of the most famous collections of travel diaries was written by Marco Polo as he explored Asia. Swift takes advantage of the form—which provides the opportunity to critique a number of alien cultures—to satirize British and European society, looking at aspects of its culture through the lens of an outside observer.
The British Whigs and Tories: In modern terms, 18th-century Whigs leaned liberal while Tories tended to be conservative. In Swift’s time, Tories supported the national Anglican church and the divine right of kings to rule—which also opposed increased power for British parliament. Whigs, on the other hand, sought greater parliamentary power. George I, king when Swift was writing Gulliver’s Travels, was a Whig supporter who filled Parliament with his chosen political party. As a Tory supporter, Swift took inspiration from the Tory-Whig conflict for the high- vs. low-heeled shoe conflict of the Lilliputians.
Historical Context Examples in Gulliver's Travels:
"together with the minute descriptions of the management of the ship in storms, in the style of sailors: likewise the account of longitudes and latitudes..." See in text (Introduction)
This is Swift’s way of poking fun at popular travel narratives of the time, which were often lengthy in their descriptions of arguably “minute” details. It also attempts to assure the reader that there is a rational explanation for all events that occur in the tale. The publisher suggests that if an explanation has been omitted, it is simply a way to prevent the reader’s boredom—rather than an indication of the story’s fabrication.
"Mr. Lemuel Gulliver..." See in text (Introduction)
Though many of Jonathan Swift’s books, including Gulliver’s Travels, are now printed under his real name, he often initially published books under pseudonyms. Gulliver’s Travels was originally published in 1726 under the pseudonym Lemuel Gulliver, which is the name of the protagonist of the novel. The name may be an allusion to King Lemuel, a king who is featured in Proverbs 31 of the Bible.
A Letter 2
"inuendo..." See in text (A Letter)
An “innuendo” is an allusive remark or an insinuation. During Swift’s time, authors could be punished if their work engaged with beliefs that contradicted the ideals or objectives of those in power. So, writers would include innuendos pushing back against elitist beliefs rather than outright stating opinions that might yield backlash. The genre of satire is an example of this: it pokes fun at and critiques the political or social power but via characters or settings that merely resemble these powers, thereby evading penalty (though not always successfully.)
" A Voyage round the World..." See in text (A Letter)
This is a reference to William Dampier, a British explorer and seaman who documented his travels and became one of the most popular authors in travel literature during his time. The book that Swift mentions here, A New Voyage Around the World, has influenced many writers, most notably, Swift and Daniel Defoe.
Part I - Chapter I 1
"Signet Royal..." See in text (Part I - Chapter I)
A “signet royal” was a personal stamp that could be used as a seal or signature. Since many people during this time were illiterate, this was a way of avoiding signing documents by hand.
Part II - Chapter VI 1
"the King's levee..." See in text (Part II - Chapter VI)
A “levee” is a morning reception that is held by a person of distinction upon rising from bed. In Britain and Ireland, the term may also refer to an afternoon reception, in which only men attend. In this context, Gulliver seems to be referring to the former, as he mentions watching the king’s barber help him get ready for the day.