Vocabulary in A Doll's House
Throughout the play, Ibsen has Torvald use gendered, childlike, and diminishing nicknames for Nora to illustrate the oppressive power imbalance in their marriage. Nora is forced into stereotypical gender roles that perceive the figure of the woman as helpless and dependent. However, Nora is neither helpless nor dependent, and Torvald’s nicknames for her illustrate just how little he knows his wife.
Vocabulary Examples in A Doll's House:
"backwater..." See in text (Act I)
The word "backwater" refers to a small and not very well-known place that isn't connected to the bigger metropolitan areas. This kind of setting would've made it very difficult for Mrs. Linde, a widow, to find reasonable work or make meaningful social connections. Hence, her visit to Nora, with whom she hasn't been close in nine years.
"such little persons..." See in text (Act I)
Ibsen's use of adjectives like "little" and nouns like "spendthrift," "skylark," and "squirrel" diminish Nora, making her not just smaller but younger, like a cartoon character flitting about their little house.
"There is a shilling. No, keep the change...." See in text (Act I)
Since the play was translated from Norwegian into English, the translator used the English equivalents (shillings and pence) for the Norwegian coinage. The Porter asks for sixpence, but Nora gives him a shilling, which is twice what he's asked. In other words, Nora is giving the Porter a 100% tip.
"nurse..." See in text (Act I)
"Nurse" here does not refer to a nurse in medicine, but to a "nursemaid," a position commonly available to those of the lower class who service those of the upper class.
"constituting your father a surety..." See in text (Act I)
In banking terms, a "surety" involves a promise by one party to be responsible for the debt owed of a borrower should that borrower default. This means that Nora's father would be responsible for repaying the cash borrowed, assuming the obligation to fulfill the terms of the loan are met.
"construction..." See in text (Act I)
In this case, "construction" refers to Krogstad's understanding based on what he believes Nora has said. In such contexts, "construction" refers to how someone construes, interprets, or explains something.
"beating about the bush..." See in text (Act I)
Also sometimes described as "beating around the bush," this expression refers to someone who is trying to avoid confrontation.
"steamer..." See in text (Act I)
"Steamers" or steamboats were, at that time, the quickest and the most popular form of long-distance transportation in Europe and the Americas and regularly shipped both passengers and goods. It would've been fairly easy and common for a woman of Christine's age to buy a ticket for a steamer, but less so for her to move from one city to another without a husband.
"quill-driver's..." See in text (Act II)
A “quill-driver” was a term that was used to refer to a writer or clerk. Torvald uses the term in a derogatory way in order to imply that Krogstad’s occupation is expendable and lowly in comparison to Torvald’s. Torvald suggests that Krogstad’s “vengeance” is not a real concern to him because Torvald holds a higher station than Krogstad.
"prevaricate..." See in text (Act II)
To “prevaricate” means to “speak or act in an evasive way.” Here, Mrs. Linde suggests that Nora is intentionally feigning naivety in order to eliminate Mrs. Linde’s suspicions that Dr. Rank lent Nora money as an “admirer.”
"all sorts of excesses..." See in text (Act II)
Nora insinuates that Dr. Rank’s father’s tendency to “commit all sorts of excesses,” or in other words, to have many lovers, was the cause of Dr. Rank’s tuberculosis. As Tuberculosis is spread through the air via a person with the infection, Nora is suggesting that Dr. Rank’s father contracted the disease from one of his mistresses and infected his son.
"consumption of the spine..." See in text (Act II)
Whereas today we refer to what Dr. Rank suffers from as “tuberculosis,” a disease that affects the lungs and sometimes other areas of the body, tuberculosis historically has been known as “consumption.” The term “consumption” was used to describe the disease because of the weight loss it causes. “Consumption of the spine” is another way of saying that Dr. Rank has a type of tuberculosis that affects the tissues of the spine rather than the lungs.