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Facts in Cyrano de Bergerac

Facts Examples in Cyrano de Bergerac:

"sols..."   (Act I - Scene I)

The word "sol" refers to French coins used during the Middle Ages. Twenty of these coins equaled one livre tournois, a form of currency used during the same period.

"the ‘Cid..."   (Act I - Scene I)

Corneille's 1637 play El Cid centered on the eponymous El Cid (1043–1099), a legendary Spanish military leader during the 11th century.

"Jacques Callot..."   (Act I - Scene II)

Jacques Callot (1592–1635) was a French artist and printmaker.

"D'Artagnan..."   (Act I - Scene IV)

Charles de Batz-Castelmore d'Artagnan (1611–1673) was a French soldier under King Louis XIV, immortalized in Alexandre Dumas The Three Musketeers. Readers should note how Cyrano de Bergerac satirizes and pays homage to Dumas's novel.

"Do I look like a Caesar fit to woo Cleopatra..."   (Act I - Scene V)

Julius Caesar (101 BCE–44 BCE) was a military general who ruled the Roman Empire. His lover, Cleopatra (69 BCE–30 BCE), was the Queen of Egypt.

"Or a Tito to win Berenice..."   (Act I - Scene V)

Tito is another name for the Roman Emperor Titus (39–81 AD), while Berenice was a Jewish princess born around 28 AD. Although Tito and Berenice were in love, Romans opposed and prohibited their marriage. Cyrano's two questions referencing these famous couples ask whether he will ever find love with such a large nose.

"Seine..."   (Act I - Scene VII)

The Seine is a river that spans 777 kilometers throughout northern France.

"Malherbe..."   (Act II - Scene I)

François de Malherbe (1555–1628) was a French poet and critic. In his criticisms, he advocated for strict poetical rule.

"Monsieur Benserade..."   (Act II - Scene V)

Isaac de Benserade (1613–1691) was a French poet and playwright.

"Saint Amant..."   (Act II - Scene V)

Marc-Antoine de Gerard de Saint-Amant (1594–1661) was a French poet.

"Chapelain..."   (Act II - Scene V)

Jean Chapelain (1595–1674) was also a French poet. Chapelain and Saint-Amant belonged to the French Academy.

"Marais..."   (Act II - Scene VII)

Le Marais is a historic neighborhood in the 3rd and 4th arrondissements in Paris. It is still considered one of the most aristocratic areas in Paris today.

"Théophraste Renaudot, editor of the “Gazette..."   (Act II - Scene VII)

French physician and journalist Théophraste Renaudot (1586–1653) founded La Gazette, the first French newspaper, in 1631.

"Agrippine..."   (Act II - Scene VII)

In 1654, Cyrano de Bergerac wrote the play La Mort d'Agrippine.

"Gassendi..."   (Act III - Scene I)

Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655) was a French scientist, philosopher, and mathematician who likely taught Cyrano de Bergerac.

"Capuchins..."   (Act III - Scene II)

Founded in Italy around 1525, the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin were an order of friars within the Catholic Church.

"Diogenes..."   (Act III - Scene VII)

Diogenes the Cynic was a Greek philosopher during 300 BCE. According to legend, he walked the streets of Athens with a lantern in order to find an honest man.

"the Scales..."   (Act III - Scene XI)

"The Scales" is a reference to the shape of a balance or scales seen in the Libra constellation.

"I didn't copy Regiomontanus’ eagle! Nor did I make a version of Archytas’ pigeon!..."   (Act III - Scene XI)

Johannes Muller (1436–1476), or "Regiomontanus," was a German astronomer and mathematician who supposedly invented a mechanical eagle that could fly. Archytas (428 BCE–347 BCE) was a Greek philosopher and astronomer who supposedly built an artificial flying bird.

"Cardinal Infante of Spain..."   (Act IV - Scene I)

Cardinal Infante Ferdinand (1610–1641) was the Prince of Spain, Cardinal of the Holy Catholic Church, and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands.

"Descartes..."   (Act IV - Scene III)

René Descartes (1596–1650) was a French philosopher and mathematician. Considered the father of modern philosophy, Descartes famously stated “I think, therefore I am.”

"wools..."   (Act V - Scene V)

Wool is thread made from sheep used in knitting or, in this case, embroidery.

"Titian..."   (Act V - Scene V)

Tiziano Vecellio (1488–1576) was an Italian painter famous for his vivid and colorful paintings.

"John of Austria..."   (Act V - Scene V)

John of Austria (1629–1679) was a Spanish general who was defeated by the French in 1658.

"Fontainebleau..."   (Act V - Scene V)

Fontainebleau is a town about forty miles southeast of Paris known for its magnificent palace that housed centuries of French Royalty.

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