Themes in Crime and Punishment
Crime, Morality, and Redemption: The crime Raskolnikov commits and the ramifications it has on his soul and community serve as the primary theme explored throughout the novel. It is revealed that Raskolnikov wrote a paper claiming how “extraordinary” people may operate outside the confines of morality in order to achieve greatness. At first glance, Raskolnikov’s murdering the pawnbroker represents an attempt to test this theory and better society by removing a corrupt, greedy element. However, the remainder of the novel concerns philosophical and spiritual discussions on the possibility of moral rehabilitation in a world of crime and temptation.
Sanity and Mental Collapse: Many characters in the Haymarket struggle with basic survival—both physical and mental. Several, such as Sonya’s father, Marmeladov, seek solace through alcohol abuse, which leads to the poverty and his eventual death that drives his wife, Katerina, to madness. Others, like Raskolnikov, nurture an obsession that threatens to destroy their connection to reality. Finally, fear plays a strong role in the emotional health of the characters, seen most poignantly in the deterioration of Raskolnikov’s mental state after the murder.
Coincidence, Fate, and Free Will: Raskolnikov himself remarks on the series of coincidences that lead him to the pawnbroker’s room, which in turn lead him to question whether or not he actually had any choice but to kill the pawnbroker and her sister. Nearly all the characters in the novel have their own encounters with coincidence, with some ascribing it to the will of Fate or God and others attributing it to the power of their own choices. Dostoevsky explores this theme through how his main character perceives events: Raskolnikov identifies coincidences and then draws conclusions and meaning from them. However, Dostoevsky also uses the novel itself to explore coincidence and free will by never providing a simple rationale for Raskolnikov’s crime: the novel represents the chaos and unpredictability of lif
Themes Examples in Crime and Punishment:
Marmeladov holds out hope that even his sins and his self-proclaimed wretchedness will not keep him from ultimate forgiveness after death and that everyone will be redeemed on the day of judgment. This notion of redemption is one of the main themes in Dostoevsky's novel and is further explored throughout.
Marmelodov easily acknowledges his own transgressions and fault, but he practically begs for Sonia's sins to be forgiven in this passage. He firmly believes that her own sins are very forgivable because they are motivated by love for her father and family. Dostoevsky explores the issues of sin, forgiveness, and redemption throughout the novel, and many different characters have their own beliefs on these matters.
Marmeladov deals with his guilt by gladly being harmed by his wife because he claims that it eases the burden on him. The different ways guilt affects the human experience is explored in this novel as one of the main themes Dostoevsky incorporates into Crime and Punishment.
By prostituting herself at the behest of her mother-in-law and for the sake of her family, Sonia sacrifices her own body and innocence for others. This initial selfless act is a defining moment for her character, her role in the story, and introduces the theme of sacrifice into the narrative.
Marmeladov's daughter, Sofya (Sonia) Semyonovna no longer lives with the rest of the family since the landlady, Leppeveschel, evicted her upon learning the girl had resorted to prostitution. Sonia did this in part due to the advice of Marmeladov's second wife, Katerina Ivanovna, and Sonia continues to sacrifice her own body for the sake of Marmeladov's family. We soon learn that Sonia now rents a room from a man named Kapernaumov.
Pulcheria clearly raised her son as a Russian Orthodox Christian, so he is likely very familiar with the rules of the church and the promise of redemption that the faith offers. Notice how his relationship to God, the church, and the theme of redemption continue to develop throughout the novel.
While we have yet to encounter the reason for it, guilt becomes the most important theme in the novel. Notice how sleep, particularly Raskolnikov's lack of sleep, is used by Dostoevsky to show the impact of guilt on the human conscience.
This longing Raskolnikov feels after having had such dramatic emotional shifts represents his desire to somehow make life better for himself. Notice how his attempts to do this are misguided and how he ultimately seeks renewal and redemption--major themes that Dostoevsky explores in the novel.
Raskonikov emphasizes his inability to help his family with their financial burdens by denying that he could "save them" from Zeus, the supreme god of Greek religion and mythology, who is used as a stand in for Fate, God, or anything that has already decide the fate of his family. The theme of fate and chance in the novel surround Raskolnikov's actions and discussions of crime later in the book.
Raskolnikov equates his sister's actions with Sonia's decision to become a prostitute in order to help her family. However, he continues this line of thought to reveal that at least he consider's Sonia's actions as more necessary and somewhat acceptable than his sister's. An important take away from this monologue, aside from how dangerously quickly Raskolnikov's mind changes on the matter, is that he appears to not understand their self-sacrifices and the rational behind them.
A concubine is a woman who lives with a man without being married to him and usually maintains a lower status as a mistress. Raskolnikov states this because he sees their marriage as a poorly thought out transaction that he believes his sister would never make for her own sake, but that she would gladly sacrifice herself for the sake of her family.
Raskolnikov concludes that his sister's planning to marry Luzhin for the benefit of the family is a sacrificial act. Note the Christian reference above when he compares what Dounia is doing Jesus Christ bearing the cross for mankind: "Bitter is the ascent to Golgotha." This adds to the theme of sacrifice and self-suffering prevalent in the novel, much like how Sonia sacrificed her own life to become a prostitute to help her family's financial problems.
By "Later on..." at the start of this paragraph, Dostoevsky relates the thoughts that Raskolnikov has much later in his life regarding this moment in time. He realizes that there was no reason for him to go home through the Hay Market, and he somewhat attributes this choice to it being predestined for him. This creates a sense of foreboding, as if the crime he intends to commit is outside of his control.
Having told himself that he can't possibly carry out the crime, Raskolnikov desperately prays to God to save him from these murderous thoughts. Afterward, feels as though he is free of his burden, but this brief feeling of redemption quickly dissipates later in the day.
After hearing the news that Lizaveta will not be home the following day at a specific time, Raskolnikov's feelings of peace and redemption leave him, and he enters his home "like a man condemned to death." This simile reveals his thoughts to us: Raskolnikov believes that fate has decided he will go through with the murder.
While Raskolnikov has subtly indicated that a kind of divine hand has guided him to this moment, he attributes this moment of good fortune to the work of the devil—which is more appropriate considering the sin he intends to commit. This incident serves to reinforce his belief that his actions are preordained by (un)holy powers.
The chance encounter with Lizaveta in the Hay Market has made Raskolnikov think back on the series of strange events that have brought him to the bring of committing murder. In his mind, these moments all lead him down this path as if it was Fate or God's will that he carry out the deed. Additionally, the memories in this chapter serve to provide readers with Raskolnikov's rationale and justification for the coming murder.
In a final act of fate or chance acting on Raskolnikov's behalf, he is able to return the axe and get to his room without encountering anyone on the way. In his weakened condition, he likely would have been unable to deal with speaking to anyone and could have given himself away had that happened.
Another instance of how Raskolnikov believes Fate is helping him escape, he sees an open, empty flat to hide inside. The choice of words here, "deliverance," implies that he has been rescued by some higher power.
Notice how there are several points during Raskolnikov's escape where it appears as if Fate is helping him. He comes to believe this himself, and Koch's impatience at the door and his leaving allow Raskolnikov a chance opportunity to leave the apartment.
Raskolnikov killed Alyona Ivanovna for a specific reason and believed that this act would be benefitial to the community. However, he kills Lizaveta, an innocent bystander, simply to accomplish his plan. This act heavily adds to and compounds the guilt that will soon start to eat away at him.
As he struggles with the guilt that is forming inside of him and the meaning of the police summons, Raskolnikov momentarily considers throwing himself on the ground to pray. While he doesn't do this, his original intention illustrates the internal struggle he is feeling between his desire to be extraordinary and above feelings of guilt and to seek divine redemption for his actions.
Considering the title of the novel, this line is significant. Raskolnikov has just committed a crime that he believed would benefit him and others. However, despite his reasons for doing it, this line suggests that he feels that punishment for committing the crime was inevitable, and that he will pay for it in one way or another.
After searching his belongings for blood and hiding the trinkets he stole, Raskolnikov suddenly becomes overwhelmed with exhaustion, unable to think clearly. He momentarily falls asleep here, but he then does it again shortly. These periods of sleep suggest that his guilty conscience has already started forming and taking hold of him.
The charity from the old woman reminds Raskolnikov that he is a part of humanity, and he somberly reflects on his past while standing over the Neva. He throws the last of his money into the river as a symbol of his rejection of materialism and as a sign that he rejects any offers of redemption, effectively cutting himself off from the rest of humanity.
Having unconsciously wandered to Razumihin's, Raskolnikov immediately believes that fate or destiny has once again guided his actions. Dostoevsky uses these moments of coincidence to advance the plot, which was an accepted literary convention of the period. He doesn't try to explain these coincidences and simply states them as matters of fact.
His act of compassion towards the Marmeladov family has filled Raskolnikov with new energy and purpose. This dialogue with the young girl represents this change in his behavior and mental state, and asking her to pray for him signifies a willingness on his part to seek redemption for his own crimes.
Marmeladov's death and the small ceremony with the priest serve as a pivotal moment in Raskolnikov's story. The symbolism of Marmeladov's blood alludes to the blood that Jesus Christ shared with his disciples as an act of communion. This moment with Marmeladov and his family is an opportunity for Raskolnikov to experience communion and seek forgiveness for his crimes and purpose for his life.
By calling for a priest instead of a doctor, Marmeladov vocalizes what everyone believes--that he is going to die. His reasons for having a priest likely include wanting to give a final confession and receive the proper kinds of funeral and burial rights. Marmeladov earlier professed his belief that redemption lies in death and acceptance into heaven for both him and his family.
In this line, one of the main themes of the novel is vocalized. Thus far, Sonia and Dounia have both made sacrifices for others, and in his sister's case, Raskolnikov does not want to be the reason for his sister to sacrifice her own happiness.
Similar to the "three fishes" statement at the end of the preceding chapter, Dostoevsky alludes to the Trinity---a religious symbol that groups God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit together. This allusion reinforces the underlying themes of Christian redemption in the novel.
Porfiry refers to the biblical story of how Jesus raised Lazarus from death. Considering the themes of redemption and rebirth in the novel as they pertain to guilt, this question is less about Porfiry's curiosity and more about Raskolnikov's belief in the possibility of redemption.
Dostoevsky is saying, through Razumihin, that a person's soul is the exact opposite of what socialism declares it to be. Therefore, a human soul cannot co-exist within a socialist society. Socialism was on the rise in the 19th century, and this philosophical discussion not only comments on that trend, but it is a theme throughout many of Dostoevsky's works.
Razumihin is stating that in socialism, the cause of a crime is only an individual's protesting against society. This theory removes the blame for the crime from the individual. The idea is in sharp contrast to Razkolnikov's internal guilt. The following conversation adds much to the theme of guilt in the story, and Porfiry uses it to his advantage to learn more about Raskolnikov.
This is the third symbolic dream that Raskolnikov has had in the story. Here, he tries to repeatedly kill the pawnbroker to prove that he is extraordinary. The laughter and her inability to die in the dream symbolically demonstrate his impotence and how the pawnbroker has become a kind of embodiment of his conscience. Additionally, the laughter shows how Raskolnikov's actions are connected to others--he does not exist in a moral vacuum--which further demonstrates how "ordinary" he is. He has become a prisoner of his own mind, unable to be freed from his guilt.
This is a very famous quote from the Bible in the book of John 11:25 that speaks about the redemption and resurrection for those who believe in Jesus Christ. For someone who has committed the crime of murder and considers his life potentially forfeit, Raskolnikov finds this message of resurrection and rebirth attractive.
Raskolnikov's actions here directly relate to the themes of sacrifice and suffering in the novel. He declares that Sonia represents the suffering of all of mankind. His mean questions and statements were designed to see whether or not she truly was worthy of the praise he gave her when with Luzhin and his family. Raskolnikov is humbled before Sonia because she is able to remain so pure, despite her circumstances.
Declaring that criminals will be unable to ignore the "law of nature," Porfiry asserts his belief that humans are unable to ignore their guilt, strongly hinting that a criminal (i.e., Raskolnikov) will either go mad or confess. Through his butterfly analogy, Porfiry emphasizes his argument, saying that the two outcomes are inevitable and that guilt is a moral force that cannot be denied or ignored.
Sonia's willingness to go with Raskolnikov demonstrates how she perceives the process of healing, forgiveness, and redemption: it is similar to resurrection, and it is symbolized by the cross. Sonia tells Raskolnikov to take her own cross, an offering that is both literal and figurative, so that he will be strong enough to confess his crime.
Sonia's immediate concern is for Raskolnikov's own personal well-being rather than his victims or others. This line speaks to the quality of her character, and how she portrays herself as more of a saint and plays an instrumental role in Raskolnikov's redemption.
Readers might wonder why Porfiry says this. Recall that Porfiry prefers to have cases settled with direct evidence and confession, which would be accomplished should Raskolnikov take Porfiry's suggestion. Additionally, should Raskolnikov confess, this would likely result in a lighter prison sentence for him. Porfiry appears to be honest when he says that he does like Raskolnikov, and he appears to want to help rehabilitate Raskolnikov through the criminal justice system.
Dostoevsky has provided moments in the story that support the idea of fate or chance as having a guiding hand in Raskolnikov's actions. The choice of words here by Svidrigaïlov to call their meeting a "miracle" (a very positive choice) and for Raskolnikov to dismiss it as "chance" (far less positive) indicates the similar yet different attitudes both men have towards fate.
Raskolnikov still struggles with accepting Dounia's (and Sonia's) belief that he should confess and suffer for his crime because those he killed were either criminals themselves or idiots. He challenges whether or not suffering is actually worth what Dounia and Sonia profess it to be. This reaction demonstrates how his pride still has a hold on his thoughts and actions, and while he is close to seeking redemption, he still has much to consider.
Dounia expresses the same belief as Sonia: Raskolnikov must confess, suffer the consequences, and then his crimes will be forgiven. This ties into the theme of sacrifice and punishment as necessary to redemption that Dostoevsky has explored throughout the novel.
Raskolnikov finally understands and recognizes his love for Sonia. In this moment, they realize that they both love each other, and Raskolnikov experiences a fundamental change within himself; he has been redeemed and given new life through his love for Sonia and her love for him.