See in text (Book I - Chapter VI)
Grasshoppers have a very short life cycle: hatch in the spring, lay eggs in the fall, and die shortly after. As the seasons change, the “feeble minstrel” that Ántonia and Jim catch is likely the last of the mature grasshoppers, indicating that winter is coming. It also serves as a metaphor for the homesickness both Ántonia and her father feel, through the comparison to Old Hata: the grasshopper “sings” because Antonia has shown it kindness, just as the old beggar woman would back in Bohemia. For Mr. Shimerda, the sound is beautiful but also a sad reminder of what he has left behind.
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"“the bride of old Tithonus”..."
See in text (Book III - Chapter I)
In Roman mythology, Aurora (Eos, in Greek), the goddess of the dawn, fell in love with a mortal man named Tithonus. He was granted imperfect immortality, living forever but still aging. Cleric watching “The bride of old Tithonus” rise out of the sea is a metaphor for watching the sun rise. This characterizes Cleric as worldly and knowledgeable about Roman traditions and mythology and as someone who enjoys flaunting it. In contrast to the wisdom that comes from living on a farm, Cleric introduces Jim to “the world of ideas” and helps him see life differently.
See in text (Book V - Chapter II)
Horses and cattle that pull carts have their heads held in a wooden device, called a yoke. Yokemates were pairs of oxen or horses that were harnessed together. Anton Cuzak looks at everyone “sideways,” like an horse looking at its yokemate. Yokemates were equals in terms of the duty they were performing, which suggests that Anton looks at everyone as an equal, including his wife. The metaphor also fits with the Cuzaks’ circumstances as farmers. Their way of life is simple but they share a respectful and equal partnership.