"child with croup..."
See in text (Book I - Chapter VIII)
The disease croup affects a breathing because of congestion in the lungs and is most common in infants and young children. It is possibly an older name for whooping cough, a disease that killed many young children in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As Pavel’s rage leaves him, he is left weak and childlike, barely able to draw breath. His decision to tell the story of the wolves and the wedding in this moment indicates that he knows he is going to die and wants to confess to someone before doing so.
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See in text (Book I - Chapter IX)
The term “hart’s horns” used to refer to a deer’s antlers. In the 19th century, the antlers were crushed up to create smelling salts and were a ubiquitous medicine. Some uses included the treatment of diarrhea, fever, sunstroke, insect bites, and snake bites. Hartshorn was also used as a source of ammonia and has been noted for its strong stench. Jim refers to that here as he compares breathing in the cold winter air to breathing in foul smelling hartshorn, which could “burn” the back of the throat.