Foreshadowing in The Odyssey
Homer uses foreshadowing to build anticipation and tension throughout the story. Because this tale was originally told orally, Homer had to keep the audience entertained and paying attention to the story by using literary devices like foreshadowing and dramatic irony.
Foreshadowing Examples in The Odyssey:
Book I 4
"the worst fate you can think of..." See in text (Book I)
This functions as both a question and a challenge. Telemachus knows very well that all the suitors would like him out of the picture and that they would, if given the opportunity, kill him themselves. It's possible they're already plotting against him. That Telemachus says this and that he goes on to say he'd like to be chief, like his father, indicates that he's coming into his own power.
"I am no prophet..." See in text (Book I)
This declaration, so obviously a lie, tells the reader that Athena's guesses about Odysseus' whereabouts are in fact true and that he will be taken hostage by a group of savages, but since we haven't seen this yet, we can assume Homer is foreshadowing something he'll relate to us later in the poem.
"bearing-post..." See in text (Book I)
A bearing-post "bears" the weight of a building and is essential to its structure. It recalls the image of Atlas, who bears the weight of the heavenly spheres on his shoulder, and foreshadows a more significant bearing-post that Homer will reveal later in the poem.
"there came a time..." See in text (Book I)
These opening passages function like a summary of what lies ahead in this epic poem. We haven't seen Odysseus with the nymph Calypso, nor have we seen the Greek gods decide to free him, but all of these things will come to pass. In that sense, these lines foreshadow the events to come.
Book III 1
"Odysseus may come back after all..." See in text (Book III)
Nestor’s question foreshadows Odysseus triumphant return at the end of the poem. Homer frequently foreshadows key moments, hinting at what’s to come, to build suspense.
Book IV 1
"some god who was exactly like him..." See in text (Book IV)
It was fairly common for gods to take the form of humans, and the suitors would be familiar with this phenomenon. However, for them to assume that Telemachus was being helped by a god, they would necessarily have to think that he's in the right and that their position is in danger. We'll see how this plays out later.
Book VI 1
"I should like my future husband to be just such another as he is..." See in text (Book VI)
Nausicaa states that she wants a future husband to be just like Odysseus; however, it is clear that she already prefers him to any other potential suitors as an ideal mate. Homer uses Nausicaa's statement here to foreshadow a serious relationship between Nausicaa and Odysseus.
Book VIII 2
"absolutely without any name whatever..." See in text (Book VIII)
A clever act of foreshadowing on Homer's part. In the next book of the poem, we will see an instance in which not having a name (or being "no one") will make the difference between life and death for Odysseus. This idea of being nameless ties into the theme of identity, which the Greeks based on one's social status and physical strength.
"I am always the first to bring a man down with my arrow..." See in text (Book VIII)
Homer uses foreshadowing here to build the audience's anticipation and hint at the events to come. Odysseus' prowess as an archer was well-known throughout Greece and Troy and would've been part of the stories told about him. In that sense, Odysseus is giving himself away through his boasting.
Book XI 3
"All that I have said will come true..." See in text (Book XI)
Remember that Tiresias has presented Odysseus with two options: he can either take the easy way or the hard way. It's impossible for him to do both, suggesting that what Tiresias actually refers to here is the second, longer option of Odysseus fighting his way home after a very long journey.
"if you can restrain yourself..." See in text (Book XI)
Moderation in indulging one's tastes and desires is one of the central Greek virtues. If Odysseus' men can withstand hunger, Tiresias says, they will make it home safely. This also foreshadows events in Book XII, in which Odysseus "restrains" himself while listening to the song of the Sirens.
"Thrinacian island..." See in text (Book XI)
This is the home island of Helios (also, Apollo), the sun god. In Book I of The Odyssey, Homer told us that Odysseus' men had slaughtered Apollo's cattle and been punished, so we know even before Tiresias completes his prophecy that this is true and will come to pass shortly.
Book XV 1
"more royal than your own..." See in text (Book XV)
Theoclymenus has appeared at exactly the right time in the narrative. His prophecies help bolster Telemachus' confidence, which has been waning without proof of his father's return, and foreshadows the final books of the poem, when Telemachus finally faces the suitors.
Book XVI 1
"I wish I were as young as you are..." See in text (Book XVI)
Notice how Odysseus declares what he would do were he in Telemachus's shoes. In doing so, Odysseus not only foreshadows his own triumph, but he also uses this as an opportunity to stir up his son's anger.
Book XVII 1
"Nurse Euryclea saw him..." See in text (Book XVII)
Homer arranges it so that Euryclea sees Telemachus first to emphasize her close relationship with Telemachus and his family. As Nurse, she has been Telemachus' primary caregiver and thus the one most likely to support him. This also foreshadows her later recognition of Odysseus.