Vocabulary in Beowulf
Vocabulary Examples in Beowulf:
"welkin..." See in text (I)
An Old English word, “welkin” is frequently found in poetry and used to refer to the clouds, the sky, or the vault of heaven, the home of the gods, above the earth. Scyld “waxed ‘neath the welkin,” which means that he not only gained fame among his people, but also he grew in fame under the eyes of the heavens.
"outward..." See in text (I)
The use of this word in the context of Scyld's burial at sea contains an extra connotation that the ship isn't just moving away from the shore, but that it is carrying the deceased leader towards an unknown destination for his afterlife.
"atheling..." See in text (I)
This historical, obscure word is from the Old English æðeling, which means a member of a noble family, such as a king, prince, or baron. In Old English poetry, it is often used to refer to those of royal blood, heirs to the throne, or to the king. In other translations of Beowulf, this line reads "that was a good king!"
"Scyld the Scefing..." See in text (I)
Scyld of Scefing translates from Old English to "Shield, son of Sheaf." In Old English (Anglo-Saxon), an -ing after a name indicates "son of." In honor of Scyld's leadership, the Spear-Danes are also called "Scyldings."
"the moor-fens, the marsh and the fastness..." See in text (II)
Swamps, marshes, and bogs are often depicted as the lairs or habitats of evil creatures in stories. Such landscapes are sparsely populated by humans and full of unseen dangers from animals, disease, and the terrain. The addition of the word “fastness”—meaning secure refuge—suggests that Grendel’s land is difficult to enter, and therefore perilous to would-be adventurers.
"winsome wold..." See in text (II)
Derived from the Old English “wald,” the noun “wold” refers to forest or wooded upland. The “winsome wold” refers to all the land of the earth, “encircled” as it is by water. This duality between land and sea directly resembles the Christian creation story laid out in the opening passages of the biblical book of Genesis.
"Heorot..." See in text (II)
Heorot loosely translates to "Hall of the Hart." A hart is a male red deer, a much larger species of deer than seen in North America. To Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon cultures, the hart symbolizes strength, bravery, and aggressiveness.
"save..." See in text (II)
The meaning of the verb “save” here actually means “except.” So, Hrothgar willingly shares all the blessings he can with his people except for his life and property. Additionally, earlier in this line the text read "than men of the era / Ever had heard of." During the time this tale was told, and translated, it was common to use the word men to refer to all people. This has fallen out of favor in recent years, as more inclusive words are preferred.
"bairn..." See in text (II)
The earlier section “List of Words and Phrases not in General Use” states that a “bairn” is a son or child. The Oxford English Dictionary clarifies this to state that a “bairn” simply refers to any offspring, a son or a daughter.
"Goes Weird as she must go!..." See in text (VII)
The term “Weird,” often written as “Wyrd,” expresses the Norse conception of personal destiny. Having declared his intentions, Beowulf concludes his speech by stating that whatever happens will proceed according to his predetermined destiny, reinforcing his stoic and brave image in the face of danger.
"this single petition..." See in text (VII)
The noun “petition” refers to an entreaty or formal request. So, when Beowulf asks Hrothgar for a petition, he is asking for permission to kill Grendel himself, an act which will greatly benefit himself and Hrothgar, because Hrothgar's people will be saved and Beowulf's reputation as a fighter will be greatly enhanced.
"I remember this man as the merest of striplings..." See in text (VII)
Hrothgar suggests that a “stripling”—meaning youthful and, literally, slim—Beowulf visited his court. While possible that Ecgtheow brought a young Beowulf to visit, it is interesting to note that Beowulf himself never indicates that he has previously been to Hrothgar's hall. Nonetheless Hrothgar remembers the hero and thus more readily welcomes Beowulf and his fellow Geatmen.
"wight..." See in text (X)
While this word simply means a living being or creature (See the List of Words and Phrases not in General Use), very often it is associated with evil or malice in tales of fantasy and fiction. The fact that it is associated with Grendel adds to this connotation.
"That by might and main-strength a man under heaven..." See in text (XII)
The nouns “might” and “main” here use a nuanced and older definition. The former refers to an ability or power to do something; the latter refers to the physical force or power itself. With this in mind, the poet means that the battle between Grendel and Beowulf is so fierce that the foundations of Hrothgar's Hall are shaken, something thought impossible by the Danes, who believed the hall to be able to withstand any assault except for fire.
"(a good king he)..." See in text (XIV)
Recall that the poet used a similar phrase at the beginning of the poem to refer to the great king Scyld Scefing (An excellent atheling!). While it's possible that this line might be slightly ironic considering Hrothgar's inability to protect his own territory, it's more likely that this is meant in earnest considering Beowulf's praise and loyalty to Hrothgar.
"His heathenish spirit, where hell did receive him...." See in text (XIV)
While we know that Grendel was evil and doomed to hell regardless, the poet uses the word heathen (which means having a faith that is considered primitive or pagan) here to illustrate the early Christian belief that anyone not baptized goes to hell, a subtle reminder to the audience that even pagans who led good lives had no chance of entering heaven.
"hand-woven corslet..." See in text (XXII)
This is the part of Beowulf's armor that protects his torso and heart. Originally made of layers of cloth and leather (cuir), by Beowulf's time, it would have been made of a thin layer of metal. As part of his equipment, it adds to Beowulf's fearlessness by offering protection of his vital organs.
"Lord of the Weders..." See in text (XXIV)
The "Weders" is another name for the Geats, or the Geat-folk. While Beowulf is not the king of the Geats, the inclusion of the word "Lord" here indicates the status that he holds among those people.
"clever carles..." See in text (XXIV)
As mentioned on the List of Words and Phrases not in General Use page, a “carle” is another word for a “man.” However, it also has more specific meaning, such as a countryman, or a man of the common people. The poet then uses this “clever carles” to refer to Hrothgar’s men who have been waiting for Beowulf to resurface.
"the bill..." See in text (XXIV)
As mentioned on the List of Words and Phrases not in General Use page, a “bill” is another word for a sword. In Old English poetry, the specific type of sword could vary between a long, straight broadsword and a shorter, slightly curved falchion. In this encounter, the bill is likely a massive broadsword, made by giants.
"the weening deceived him..." See in text (XXXIII)
The noun “weening” is Germanic in origin and means the action of believing, thinking, or supposing. In this case, the poet is saying that the dragon believes in his barrow and that this belief will deceive the dragon. This serves as foreshadowing for the coming conflict between Beowulf and the dragon—the dragon's trust in the security of his home is not going to help against Beowulf.
"Bit more feebly than his folk-leader needed..." See in text (XXXV)
In the Old English version, Beowulf's blow with the sword is described as ungleáw, which can translate to mean that Beowulf's strike was not skillful, or awkward." There is a possibility that Beowulf, because of his age, is not as powerful as he needs to be in order to defeat the dragon. The original Old English has been reproduced here:
Sweord ær gebräd
gôd gûð-cyning gomele lâfe,
ecgum ungleáw, æghwäðrum wäs
bealo-hycgendra brôga fram ôðrum.
"Nægling was shivered..." See in text (XXXVI)
In different versions of Beowulf, Naegling assumes different shapes. For example, in some prose versions, Naegling is described as a glaive (a spear with a knife or dagger-sized blade attached to its point). Naegling is more often described as Beowulf's sword—possibly the sword of Hrethel that Higelac gifted him—as it is here.
"Scylfings..." See in text (XXXVI)
The poet uses “Scylfings” as a metonym for “Swedish” since the Scyldings were the ruling clan in Sweden at the time. The poet tells the audience how Wiglaf's father, Weohstan—a Swede of the Wægmunding clan—joined the Geats and swore loyalty to Beowulf.
"Wægmunding..." See in text (XXXVI)
The mention of this clan name is significant because it is the same Swedish clan that Beowulf's father, Ecgtheow, belonged to. This establishes Wiglaf as Beowulf's distant cousin and only living relative at the time of Beowulf's death. The use of “kin-love” at the end of the previous section also emphasizes this connection that Beowulf and Wiglaf share.