Literary Devices in Beowulf
Literary Devices Examples in Beowulf:
"we have heard..." See in text (I)
Beowulf has been translated into both prose and poetry versions. Regardless of version, the epic poem shares events from the point of view of an unnamed poet. Throughout the piece, the poet will use inclusive pronouns, as done here, call to the audience directly, and comment on aspects of the story, as shown later.
"Unferth spoke up, Ecglaf his son, Who sat at the feet of the lord of the Scyldings, Opened the jousting..." See in text (IX)
In the original Old English, the phrase “opened the jousting” translates literally as unlocked his word-hoard or unlocked his battle-speech, which are kennings which indicate to the audience that formal speeches are coming up. Unferth, whose name may be a play on the Old English word unfrith, which means un-peaceful, seems to be the designated challenger of Beowulf among Hrothgar's retainers.
"came from the moor then Grendel going..." See in text (XII)
In Anglo-Saxon, Grendel com ("came… Grendel") is repeated three times for alliterative effect and suspense as the monster approaches Heorot. Many translators, however, have chosen to translate com as "journeyed," "approached," "trod," or other verbs indicating deliberate forward motion.